Galena is the primary ore mineral of lead. [7], Galena was used as decoration in the prehistoric Mississippian city at Kincaid Mounds in present-day Illinois.[8]. Formal, large-scale mining operations in Wisconsin were established in the 1820s. 7.5. During the Wisconsin “lead rush” of the 1820s-40s, lead was more valuable than gold. 2 ore shoots, the latter of which is 50 ft. long. It is often associated with the minerals sphalerite, calcite and fluorite. “I was born and raised in Upper Michigan’s Copper Country, which (as we both know is false) claims to the be the site of America’s first mineral boom. Within the weathering or oxidation zone galena alters to anglesite (lead sulfate) or cerussite (lead carbonate). For those looking to conduct research in the collection are required to make an appointment 72 hours in advance and at the availability of the staff. During the Wisconsin “lead rush” of the 1820s-40s, lead was more valuable than gold. Does this post resonate with you? Galena exposed to acid mine drainage can be oxidized to anglesite by naturally occurring bacteria and archaea, in a process similar to bioleaching. History About the Galena Brewery. Believe it or not, the first man to come into the district to explore copper veins for a company was Colonel Charles Hempstead Gratiot, Lt. Joseph Lorimer Hempstead, and with them were the first Cornish miners to come into the Copper district. Galena, the official state mineral of Wisconsin, is the raw material used to produce lead. Galena, South Dakota is a ghost town and old mining camp located in the Black Hills of Lawrence County, about 11 miles southeast of Deadwood. Major lead mining occurred from the 1800’s until the late 1970’s. I was interested in the telephone history display and the antique cars. The mineral has occasionally been observed as a replacement of organic matter and sometimes occurs in coal beds. 2013 Mining History Association Annual Conference The Mining History Association will meet in historic Galena, Illinois, June 6-9, 2013. [6], One of the oldest uses of galena was in the eye cosmetic kohl. See more. However, as humans used up these shallow deposits of galena, they needed to dig deeper and deeper underground to find it, creating vast networks of mines beneath the surface. Lead forms when super-heated magma meets fluid underground. As I’m sure you know, Gratiot was the son of Henry Gratiot, who was among the first lead miners to come to the Wisconsin Lead District (Gratiot’s Grove, 1825).”. When the fluid meets the magma it heats up, and begins to circulate, carrying the lead away from the magma. Today we know that lead is toxic, but it was once an important part of everyday life in Wisconsin. Zinc, cadmium, iron, copper, antimony, arsenic, bismuth and selenium also occur in variable amounts in galena. Since statehood was dependent on population, this influx of immigrants to the region helped and helped Wisconsin transition from a territory to a state in 1848. Galena is the main ore of lead, used since ancient times. You can visit one of these shot towers at Tower Hill State Park near Spring Green, Wisconsin. In fact, the name galena comes from the Latin word for lead ore. To put that in perspective, it … Feedback, questions or accessibility issues: webadmin@history.wisc.edu. Add your name if you'd like, or leave the name field blank to submit anonymously. the silver ore shoot strikes s 70 deg w, dips 70 deg s, is 800 ft long. Selenium substitutes for sulfur in the structure constituting a solid solution series. Galena belongs to the octahedral sulfide group of minerals that have metal ions in octahedral positions, such as the iron sulfide pyrrhotite and the nickel arsenide niccolite. Sponsored by the UW-Madison Department of History. In addition to Grant material, the museum tells the story of the eight other Union generals who came from Galena during the Civil War. Galena is the most common mineral containing lead, and has been well-known throughout the centuries. galena (usually uncountable, plural galenas or galenae) A mineral, lead sulphide (PbS), mined as an ore for lead. Galena Named for the Latin word galena which was given to lead ore or the dross from melted lead. These argentiferous galenas have long been an important ore of silver. This is the picture of Lee surrendering to Grant at Appomattox which you remember from your history textbooks. 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