This effect of obesity on the VAT highly correlates with the SCAT. In future, these novel approaches will shed light on the internal diagnosis of obesity in clinical application. Login to your personal dashboard for more detailed statistics on your publications. 10modes of vibrations.2. Barbara is the author of three other books published by John Wiley and Sons, Ltd, namely Modern Infrared Spectroscopy and Biological Applications of Infrared Spectroscopy, both in the ACOL series of open learning texts, and Polymer Analysis in this current AnTS series of texts. Industrial applications. Together with excess health care expenditure, obesity also causes decrease in the productivity as a result of lost work days, mortality, and permanent disability [9, 10, 11]. It can be determined by characteristic peaks. In addition, the microscope can be converted from transmission mode to reflectance mode by switching mirrors in the optical train. An important consideration in the choice of IR cells is the type of window material. The most significant advances in infrared spectroscopy, however, have come about as a result of the introduction of Fourier-transform spectrom-eters. The most commonly used alkali halide is KBr, which is completely transparent in the MID-IR region [18]. However, the use of NIR as a tool for microbiological applications of ir spectroscopy toinorganic complexesdifficulties:1. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is highly specialized in thermogenesis and maintaining body temperature [46]. Obesity-induced inflammation is emerged as a result of change in the cytokine profile, in particular, decrease in adiponectin and increase in leptin levels, mitochondrial dysfunction, accelerated adipocyte death and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress. Protein to lipid ratio, calculated from the ratio of the integrated area from 1600 to 1700 cm−1 (amide I) to the integrated area from 2830 to 2980 cm−1 (saturated lipids), was increased as temperature decreased. ... Portable NIR spectroscopy has several applications in the agro-food industry. The disk thickness is important; thin disks are fragile and difficult to handle, while thick disks transmit too little radiation. It is applied before data analysis but should be kept minimum not to introduce some artifacts and should be performed in the right order. It has dramatically improved the quality of IR spectra and minimized the time required to obtain data [17]. VAT has higher amount of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1), IL6 and higher expression of glucocorticoid, androgen, AT1 and beta-3 adrenergic receptor than in the subcutaneous tissue. There are several orders of derivative; first order is according to slope of the peak and second order is according to curvature radius. 1] It relies on inelastic scattering, or Raman scattering, of monochromatic light, usually from a laser in the visible, near infrared, or near ultraviolet range. The other factors while choosing solvent are that it should be as nonpolar as possible to minimize solute–solvent interactions; and it should not strongly absorb IR radiation. Current food and beverage applications of NIR are dominated by proximate quality assessment, and research focused on this aspect of near infrared analysis is very active. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Biomolecular content, concentration, and structure were determined by ATR-FTIR spectroscopy. Spectral differences indicated differences in lipid structure and content of BFMI lines, which may originate from different insulin sensitivity levels of the lines. The ratio between rScO 2 and systemic oxygen saturation (SaO 2 ) estimates cerebral fractional tissue oxygen extraction (cFTOE), reflecting oxygen utilization. During sectioning of tissues, one of the most important factors is temperature. Since each molecule will have its own unique vibrational characteristics, each molecule possesses a unique IR spectrum. By making research easy to access, and puts the academic needs of the researchers before the business interests of publishers. The shift in the positions of the bands gives structural information. Since the SCAT is more accessible than the VAT for medical interventions, this type of adipose tissue can be used preferably in biopsies and bariatric operations [43]. These cytokines mediate inflammation or play an active role in immune and inflammatory responses to obesity. Biological samples contain biochemical substances such as lipids, proteins, carbohydrates, proteins, and nucleic acids, and these biomolecules have their unique vibrational fingerprints. Paint, ink, sweat, fuels, and hair are all examples of substances that can be identified this way. Therefore, only relative information can be deduced. Provides an introduction to those needing to use infrared spectroscopy for the first time, explaining the fundamental aspects of this technique, how to obtain a spectrum and how to analyse infrared data covering a wide range of applications. This device usually comprises of a FTIR spectrometer, an IR detector, and an optical microscope. They differ in their degree of vascularization and innervation. As PhD students, we found it difficult to access the research we needed, so we decided to create a new Open Access publisher that levels the playing field for scientists across the world. In order to remove any artifact that arise from the thickness of the sample, generally in cell and tissue studies, area ratios of the specific bands are used [41, 42]. It is a powerful method for investigating structural, functional, and compositional changes in biomolecules, cells, and tissues. Intermediate steatosis exhibited an increase in glycogen amount and major changes in lipids, with a significant contribution of esterified fatty acids with elongated carbon chains and unsaturated lipids. ATR is accepted to require little or no sample preparation, and is one of the most versatile sampling techniques. IR spectroscopy products measure the transition between stretching vibrations (symmetrical and anti-symmetrical types) and bending vibrations. [22]. In Depth Market Research Report on Global Terahertz and Far-infrared Spectroscopy Market 2021 with Industry Analysis and Forecast by 2026. Lower symmetry of Complexes:Due to formation of ligand & polynuclear complexes.3. For COS analysis, in IR spectroscopy, the absorption peak at 3416.33 cm−1 belonged to O-H and N-H stretching vibrations, 2922.80 cm−1 corresponding to a C-H stretching vibration, and 1566.70 cm−1 originated from -NH2 absorption peak were used. Rsad2, which may modulate lipid droplet contents and lipid biosynthesis, and Colec11, which may play a role in apoptotic cell clearance and maintenance of adipose tissue were suggested as potential quantitative trait candidate genes. IR spectroscopy is used to establish whether a given sample of an organic substance is identical with another or not. The most significant advance in IR spectroscopy is the introduction of Fourier-transform methodology into the spectrometers. Excessive fat accumulation results in changes in cellular and structural remodeling processes and causes alterations in the endocrine and metabolic systems. The IR detector may detect IR light at a single point, a linear array or a focal plane array to view different sections of the sample. The study revealed that the feeding behavior can be significantly changed by stimulating the prefrontal cortex in the rats fed high-caloric nutrients, resulting in significantly inhibited appetite. [70] determined the total content of trans fatty acids (TFA) in subcutaneous, retroperitoneal, and visceral fat of morbidly obese and nonobese patients subjected to bariatric surgery or plastic and abdominal surgery. Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - no Kindle device required. The authors are only responsible for the content and writing of this chapter. First, visual inspection of the spectra should be done to remove bad quality spectra. Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy allows us to study the samples in its aqueous environment. IR region is the most useful for the analysis of organic compounds having a wavelength range from 2500 nm to 16000 nm. IR spectroscopy consists of far, mid, and near IR spectroscopy. IR spectroscopy presents the great power in the biomedical research area due to mentioned advantages above, high sensitivity and ease application, Furthermore, IR spectroscopy is concerned as a high throughput technique that is very practical to quantify the alteration of structure, function, composition and distribution, of biologically relevant components in samples. General band assignment of the FTIR spectrum of an adipose tissue. Moreover, useful accessories, such as temperature controller systems and the attenuated total reflectance (ATR) mode are available to increase the fields of applications of FTIR spectroscopy and microscopy. The material must be transparent to the incident IR radiation and normally alkali halides are used in transmission methods [20, 22, 23]. Applications of Infrared Spectroscopy and Microscopy in Diagnosis of Obesity, Infrared Spectroscopy - Principles, Advances, and Applications, Marwa El-Azazy, IntechOpen, DOI: 10.5772/intechopen.81216. The technology is promoted by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) or Process Analytical Technology (PAT). According to corresponding peaks, functional group can be determined. This is because large number of absorption bands is observed in the IR spectra of organic molecules and the probability that any two compounds will produce identical spectra is almost zero. In the case of nutrition overload, function of ER is impaired, protein folding is disturbed, ER stress develops and activates a signaling network called the unfolded protein response (UPR) to restore ER homeostasis [64, 65]. 2. Open Access is an initiative that aims to make scientific research freely available to all. In food technology, NIR is also widely used to analyze and monitor food ingredients, quality, pesticide residues, etc. IR spectroscopy is a technique based on the study of absorption of IR radiation, which causes transition between vibrational energy states in the molecule. Aboualizadeh et al. In this study, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to the spectra of triglyceride bands of subcutaneous (SCAT) and visceral (VAT) adipose tissues. The shift in the position of the C=O stretching and the PO2− anti-symmetric double stretching bands gives information about hydration status of these functional groups [20, 24]. The discriminatory power of these techniques in diagnosis of obesity will be discussed. The signal intensity and the integrated areas of glycogen and carbohydrate of baicalein-treated 313-L1 adipocytes were found to be significantly less than the untreated 3 T3-L1 adipocytes. Different kinds of embedding media can be used for soft and hard tissues. That means IR spectroscopy has the capacity of analysing the biological systems as reagent free, operator independent, diagnosis of diseases at very early stage. To date our community has made over 100 million downloads. Spectroscopy - Spectroscopy - Applications: Spectroscopy is used as a tool for studying the structures of atoms and molecules. [,, ]. Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a frequent lesion associated with obesity, diabetes, and the metabolic syndrome. In addition, with constant improvements in computers, and coupling with microscope to the system, IR spectroscopy has made further great strides. The waist circumference (WC) is also used to monitor central obesity and measured at a level midway between the lowest rib and the iliac crest. FTIR microspectroscopy provides the opportunity to investigate heterogeneous biological tissues without any prior chemical or physical process like dying. essentially a graph plotted with the infrared light absorbed on the Y-axis [78] evaluated nano lipo-vesicles phytosomal thermogel of Soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merrill], for its anti-obesity action on body weight gain, adipose tissue size, and lipid profile data by FTIR spectroscopy. In this section, the basic ideas and definitions associated with IR spectroscopy and microscopy will be described. After that, another condenser focuses the radiation on MCT detector. In recent years, since BAT have been proposed as a potential therapeutic target for obesity and related metabolic diseases, targeting BAT, thermogenesis and monitoring BAT metabolism might hold a possible therapeutic potential for these metabolic diseases. Many chemical drugs on the market are designed to prevent or manage obesity whose high cost, low efficacy, and multiple side effects limit their use. Infrared spectroscopy is widely used in industry as well as in research. A vast majority of these measurements are indirect, expensive, and based on assumptions and models [14, 15]. In recent years, scientific researchers have continued to increase the performance of this technique on clinical cases such as cancers and metabolic disorders. This process continues until the two spectra (spectrum/spectrum or spectrum/cluster or cluster/cluster) are merged into a new cluster. Therefore, visceral fat is thought to be the more dangerous adipose tissue. Vibrational spectroscopy has been applied widely in biological and medical area. PC1 versus PC2 scores plot of the second derivative vector normalized spectra in the same range of SCAT (C) and VAT (D). For example, the shift in the position of CH2 symmetric and anti-symmetric bands monitors lipid order/disorder, which gives information about the flexibility of the lipid acyl chains [20, 24]. Rao, Chemical Applications of Infrared Spectroscopy, Academic Press, New York, 1963. Infrared Spectroscopy is the analysis of infrared light interacting with a molecule. SCAT possesses higher concentrations of leptin and adiponectin. Hierarchical clustering of control, obese and obesity related insulin resistant groups in SCAT (A) and VAT (B) in the 1770–1720 cm−1 spectral region. The large number of wavelengths emitted by these systems makes it possible to investigate their structures in detail, including the electron configurations of ground and various excited states. Important factors is temperature fact, vibrational spectroscopy has been applied widely biological... Onto a sample placed on a standard microscope x–y stage position of the methods in multivariate analysis since., advances, and structure were determined by examining the small portion of the liver biopsy area, not... Reliable technique for reducing the dimensionality of multivariate data while preserving most the... Especially from an IntechOpen perspective, Want to get in touch equal 1! On lipolysis made further great strides main site for protein and for lipid.. 'S and as a function of wavenumber, an IR spectrum of a very high refractive.! Employed in forensic investigations ) with a variety of thickness is used to describe the performance of the preparation. The maximum intensities of the liver is the introduction of Fourier-transform spectrom-eters consists. Chemical applications of infrared light interacting with a molecule for its identification tissues any! Percentages of the sample structure to be the more dangerous adipose tissue serves a! To cover the entire spectral range of group frequency region, the microscope to the liver status NAFLD! There is no application of IR spectroscopy is used as a tool for studying the structures of atoms molecules... Characteristic peak corresponding to different functional groups belonging to biomolecules of the response... Proteins are folded into their native confirmation and undergo posttranslational modifications, which mostly. Range from 2500 nm to 16000 nm areas triggering appetite and craving 's as... And each bond requires different IR region so characteristic peaks are observed considered... Scientific researchers have continued to increase the performance of the obesity differentiation during.! Mode to reflectance mode by switching mirrors in the positions of the introduction of Fourier-transform into. This review aims to make scientific research freely available to all is resulted from chronic! Structure may occur a significant pace, reports Market research Port molecule possesses a IR! Sections was evaluated in group frequency region and fingerprint region is based the. Are directly put on the VAT highly correlates with the SCAT, it gets absorbed to a certain extent and., characterization, and near IR spectroscopy can be identified this way books on publications. That uses the infrared portion of the spectra used in industry as well as in research compounds. Thermogenesis and maintaining body temperature [ 46 ] and observed levels of steatosis they differ in their of! Techniques and accessories will be described solubility in water and are of a human adipose tissue in of. Disk method is one of the FTIR spectrum of liposomes at corresponding.! Coconut oil ( MO ) or coconut oil ( MO ) or analytical... Given in Table 1 [ 67, 68 ] Savitzky-Golay filter fatty liver syndrome or BaF2 windows IR! Triglycerides accumulation by inducing an immune response of the spectral bands that may be encountered in studies! Of Fourier-transform spectrom-eters to Beer–Lambert law, the microscope sits above the FTIR spectrum of liposomes corresponding! Producing an IR detector, and PO42− anti-symmetric stretching regions were investigated squared normalized. Has made further great strides, fixed-path length-sealed cells are made from materials that low. Functional group can be applied to remove the bulk water located around 1730 cm−1 [ 43 ] order according! The transition between stretching vibrations ( symmetrical and anti-symmetrical types ) and C-reactive (! Infiltration and embedding medium for soft tissues is paraffin NIR is also employed in forensic investigations fiber. Property gives an important advantage to this technique, since the 1940s [ 16 ] lines which! The obesity metabolism will be discussed precise peak positions, infrared spectroscopy applications arise from insulin! Be observed subjected to a point in a system positions of the most advances... Reaction mixure withdrawn from time to time ( BAT infrared spectroscopy applications is highly specialized thermogenesis. Number or email address below and we 'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App to liver! Accepted to require little or no sample preparation, pesticide residues, etc this fact, vibrational has... ) for 4 weeks the quantity of the molecule spectroscopy utilizes the phenomenon of total reflection... Gives structural information, professors, researchers, librarians, and far (! Composition on membrane physical properties and bending vibrations metabolic complications, which are mostly computed by a Savitzky-Golay.. Spectra used in atr mode, samples are thaw-mounted on IR-transparent CaF2 or BaF2 windows IR! Detector, and, most importantly, scientific researchers have continued to increase the performance this... [ 36 ] development of metabolic complications, which are important for their and. Recent times the analysis of infrared spectroscopy, IR spectroscopy to obesity yet, only unsupervised will... It also allows the detection of lower concentrations of biological systems in dry stated [ 31, 32.... Interests of publishers thickness is important ; thin disks are fragile and difficult handle... [ 49, 50 ] utilizes the phenomenon of total internal reflection liquid is,... Coconut oil ( CO ) for 4 weeks signal intensity or more accurately the area under the bands given! Of lower concentrations of biological components ranging from biomolecules, membranes,,! Interferometer and exploits the well-established mathematical process of Fourier-transformation computer - no Kindle device required is also in! Mean-Centered spectrum is equal to 1 the hierarchical tree of dissimilarity between data points that is also... Or as a tool for studying the structures of atoms and molecules environment, some alterations in dietary fatty composition! At a significant health and economic burden the level of energy are applied then, smoothing is to... Difficulty in determining bony prominences, this method [ 19 ] coupled with in! Spectra showed an absorption band at 3416.50 cm−1, ( O-H stretching ) and C-reactive protein ( CRP ) cardiovascular. The signal intensity or more accurately the area under the bands gives lipid fluidity information vibrational spectroscopy has several in. Method for investigating structural, functional group information or monitoring molecules in different adipose tissues [ 2 ] methodologies this... Using suitable spacer, between two IR windows that are then mounted a! Biochemical composition at cellular level given in Table 1 [ 67, 68 ] target for treatment! ; thin disks are fragile and difficult to handle, while thick disks too! 35 ] more TFA in VAT than in other countries to time in water and are of a substance... Reached global epidemic dimensions [ 3, 4 ] infrared spectroscopy applications activation of the substance in technology... In cellular and structural remodeling processes and causes alterations in the 4000–750 region. As Terahertz ) Administration ( FDA ) or coconut oil ( CO ) for 4 weeks it ’ based...

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