If they do, proceed with troubleshooting the load cell. Then I understand the output resistance is the measured resistence between the S+ and S- (see representation of the bridge below), that is 2R/2 = R (two resistor and series = 2R, and then 2R and 2R in parallel). Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share … I've inserted values of R5 and R6 that give 1090 ohms from the perspective of the excitation wires but still gives 1000 ohms from the perspective of the sense wires. I am trying to understand the specifications of a load cell and there are the input and output resistance as you can see here, it says 1090±10Ω for input resistance and 1000±10Ω of output resistance. The procedure for measuring the individual values is described below. Then measure the insulation resistance between the connected wires and the cable shield. Similarly, check the load cell for accuracy by measuring the millivolts signal from the input leads. The ideal voltage amplifier therefore has infinite r in and zero r out. Consider using junction boxes between load cells and indicators for maintenance such as checkups Podcast 301: What can you program in just one tweet? The procedure for measuring the individual values is described below. By using our site, you acknowledge that you have read and understand our Cookie Policy, Privacy Policy, and our Terms of Service. load cell data: max load: 1.5ton(imperical) rated output: 1.953mV/V. Input resistance Rin 2.4 3.0 3.6 kΩ mV Output only Output resistance Rout 1.76 2.2 2.64 kΩ mV Output only Rise time Tr 2.0 ms 10% to 90% Maximum output current Io 2.2 mA 0.5-4.5V Output only Output short circuit duration Ts ∞ seconds 0.5-4.5V Output only Insulation resistance 50 MΩ @250VDC Bandwidth 1.0 kHz Entering USA with a soon-expiring US passport. A most sensitive full-scale input range ±20.000 mV can be scaled internally to ±99,999 counts. 3. OUTPUT BRIDGE RESISTANCE - Resistance to Ground: Connect all the input, output, sense and ground leads together, and measure the resistance between the load cell body and the leads with an ohmmeter. Instrumentation Amplifier. Article Technical Rating: 6 out of 10 A load cell is a sensor device that can be used to measure an applied physical force and then convert that force into an output quantity that is directly proportional to the force. Randomly Choose from list but meet conditions. each load cell in mV/V. Load cells may, from time to time, encounter faults that disrupt their performance. The remainder of the troubleshooting steps require the following test equipment: Upon obtaining the above, proceed with the following steps in order, as needed based on the trouble encountered. Strain gauges are bonded at a 45 o angle on the neutral axis of the load cell. The value of ri ranges from 10 7 Ω to 10 12 Ω, depending on the type of input. Am I allowed to call the arbiter on my opponent's turn? Now I'm reading the output of the ADC and am getting a pretty consistent value of 17 (out of 1023) with zero load applied to the load cell. Analysis The insulation resistance of all load cells should be 5000 MΩ or more for bridge circuit to housing, bridge circuit to cable screen and housing to cable screen. Measure the voltage across the load cell output terminals with a millivolt meter (mV) and divide the result by the excitation voltage to obtain the zero balance in mV/V. The part that I don't understand is about the input bridge resistance being "usually higher than the output bridge resistance because of the presence of compensating resistors in the excitation circuit.". The reading should be at least 5,000 megaohms. Ways to do live polling (aka ConcepTests) during class. Why can't I sing high notes as a young female? INPUT BRIDGE RESISTANCE - The input resistance of the load cell. S+ to S- 350Ω Ex + to S+ 315Ωapprox. The input and output resistances should be less than 3 kilo-ohms. How to get stable and accurate value of load? Using the original datasheet specs, compare the input and output resistance from “minus output” to “minus input”, and “minus output” to “plus input”. Set the Multimeter to OHMS ~Ω and check the input and output resistance as follows:  Disconnect all load cell wires at junction box  Connect the meter across the load cell excitation wires and read the input resistance, which should be as stated on the product data sheet. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share … Shielded cables should be used for load cells. Figure 1 A typical scheme of 6 wires load cell Testing the Zero Balance The zero Balance is defined as the load cell output when it’s not loaded. Cable diameter/Length: φ3.5/0.4 m When we apply load the strain gauge resistance will change and hence the output voltage from the load cell get changes by the way we can measure the load value. All cabling should be free of cuts, crimps, exposed wire,etc. The LCT -Ultimate will show the output in percentage from the full scale. For example, a load cell with a 10-V excitation supply and a 2-mV/V-gain factor generates an output of 20 mV at full load, whether the load cell was designed to handle 10, 100, or 1,000lbs. Input impedance adjustment resistor. I would appreciate if somebody could explain me this? The load cell has great resistance to extraneous forces and is protected against dust, moisture and adverse environmental conditions. If an individual load cell is suspected, the following tests can be carried out to confirm its condition: Resistance Test Set the Multimeter to OHMS (W) and check input and output resistance as follows: Disconnect all load cell wires at junction box Connect meter across load cell excitation wires and read the input resistance as shown above. Measure the input and output resistance across input and output terminals of the load cell with an ohmmeter. The output signal Vout of a load cell at Nominal Capacity (Ln) is described by the Nominal Sensitivity (Sn) and the power supply (Vin). Then measure the insulation resistance between the connected wires and the cable shield. The difference is in the resolution of the system. I don't understand how R5 and R6 can compensate temperature effects, or why they exists. If the insulation resistance is not the problem, proceed to the next tests. The input resistance of the load cell. MathJax reference. This happens due to electrical component failures or an internal short circuit. Stack Exchange network consists of 176 Q&A communities including Stack Overflow, the largest, most trusted online community for developers to learn, share their knowledge, and build their careers. An operational amplifier, also called an op-amp, is one of the most crucial components of any analog el… range: 25% to 110% of cell capacity @ 2mV/V . Note: Never use a mega-ohmmeter to measure the input and output resistance of the load cell, as it operates at a voltage level (50V) far greater than the load cell’s normal input and output voltage and can therefore damage the load cell. input resistance: 402+-10 ohm. site design / logo © 2021 Stack Exchange Inc; user contributions licensed under cc by-sa. The cell output is rated in millivolts per volt (mV/V) of the difference voltage at full rated mechanical load. Input terminal resistance: 420 ± 30 Ω: Output terminal resistance: 350 ± 5 Ω: Insulation resistance: Greater than 2000 MΩ: Operating temperature -10 °C to 40 °C: Temperature effect: Zero: 0.023% of R.O./10 °C: Span: 0.014% of Load/10 °C Typ. Input terminal resistance: 420 ± 30 Ω: Output terminal resistance: 350 ± 5 Ω: Insulation resistance: Greater than 2000 MΩ: Operating temperature -10 °C to 40 °C: Temperature effect: Zero: 0.023% of R.O./10 °C: Span: 0.014% of Load/10 °C Typ. Removing the load resistor R L for the moment suppose you were asked what the input voltage to the attenuator V i … The Laureate load cell or microvolt input transmitter is designed for use with load cells, strain gauges and microvolt input signals where exceptional sensitivity and stability are required. First, disconnect the load cell from the summing box and indicator panel. This means it should output 0.0018*(2.997e-3 V/V)*(3.3 V) *340=0.0060527412 V with zero load applied. The bridge integrity checks the input and output resistance and is measured with an ohmmeter across each pair of input and output leads. … The output resistance of the cell. When the supply has high impedance, high load current causes a voltage drop across this impedance and lower the output voltage. It amplifies and converts load cell signal into standard dc current 4-20mA and voltage 0-5V 0-10V output. Check the mechanical supports, load cell orientation and mounting surfaces for cleanliness, levelness and alignment. The load cell produces analog voltage signal at the output depending the weight applied on its surface (for further understanding study working of load cell).This analog signal is given to PGA (amplifier) through multiplexer. Use a straightedge or level if need be. But in my first read of input bridge resistance definition I understood that it is the value that I measure between E+ and E- (that AFAIK is R too). Disconnect the load cell from the junction box or measuring devices. To learn more, see our tips on writing great answers. Therefore, if the attached load cell measures both tension and compression, the offset should be adjusted to 2.5V; if the load cell measures just one direction of stress, the offset should be adjusted to around 0.5V or 4.5V, depending on the output polarity of the load cell. Making statements based on opinion; back them up with references or personal experience. If it still fails, the load cell requires repair. A sudden change in the zero balance value of the load cell. It only takes a minute to sign up. Load Cell Input Excitation:10 VDC, 120mA max,(4 – 350 ohm cells) Load cell range:1.5 to 3 mV/V with full bridge . It is measured by placing an ohmmeter It involves measuring the output resistance, input resistance and the bridge balance, through the following steps: Expected result: The difference between the two test readings of the bridge balance test should be less than or equal to 1%. The rotor blades pass a pickup coil, generating an electrical signal pulse. Check the interconnecting cables at the summing box. The gain on the amplifier is set by resistors according the the equation 4+60,000/R. Lastly, measure the insulation resistance between the load cell body and the cable shield. If the resistance is … Ex+ to S- 315Ωapprox. Drawing a backward arrow in a flow chart using TikZ, Filesystem copied to new server is 60% bigger - why. How to calculate input resistance of a multiplxer. It's basically to do with the gauge factors of the gauges changing with temperature - basically this corresponds to an alteration of Vout per microstrain and R5 and R6 lower or increase excitation to fight this change. Wheatstone bridge formation of Load Cell . Combination of four half-bridge load cells. The PGA amplifies the signal and provides output to digital interface. Its output is adjustable through potentiometer, and power supply is 18-27VDC wide range. What should a load cell response curve look like? In my schematic, R5 and R6 would be the compensation resistors (usually compensating temperature effects). In Figure 13.3, if VP is grounded, then ri = RD ‖ RN. Amplifiers are electronic devices built from components designed to amplify the load cell’s small output signal (in mV) in the presence of large common-mode voltage signals. across the input or excitation leads. Expression of flow rate is measured in actual cubic f… Check the excitation voltage source connections. I would say the contrary, if I have other resistances in parallel with the nodes E+ and E- the measured resistance between this nodes would be lower and not higher than the resistance measured between S- and S+, but I am wrong, why? It is measured by placing an ohmmeter It is usually higher than the output bridge resistance because of the presence of compensating resistors in the excitation circuit. What is the difference of a loadell input and output resistance? When there is a high-voltage power supply near a load cell and its cables, keep a distance of more than 300 mm, arrange other piping, and protect the load cell from the inductive interference. It measures the resistance between the load cell body and all its connected wires, as follows: Expected Result: The insulation resistance should match the value in the product’s load cell datasheet. Connect all the input, output and sense (if equipped) wires together. There are different types of load cells such as hydraulic load cells, pneumatic load cells, capacitive load cells, strain gauge load cells, etc. The zero balance is the output reading of a load cell at no load. Reading and interpreting output sensitivity of a load cell from data sheet, Signal lines from transducer made common by op-amp, Constant-temperature anemometer circuit not behaving as expected. In addition, the low impedance helps in reducing the noise and interference. Digital bathroom scale circuit - how it works? In your example above the attenuator starts at Port 1 and finishes at Port 2. 1100 Johnson Rd. 2. Chapter 7: Load Cell … An insulation resistance test is carried out when there are unstable readings and/or random changes in the zero balance point of the load cell. Instrumentation Amplifier. What does it mean when an egg splatters and the white is greenish-yellow? Test failure: Differences in the bridge balance measured values exceed 1% or the input and output resistances exceed 3 kilo-ohms. Input resistance and output resistance are parameters to help you use a particular circuit. Thanks for contributing an answer to Electrical Engineering Stack Exchange! Cable diameter/Length: φ3.5/0.4 m Check load cell for dents, cracks, corrosion, excessive wear in the loading area, bending or buckling. If the load cell proves to be defective after all the above tests for faults are performed, it can be returned to the OEM for repairs or replacement. Instrumentation Amplifier - is it possible to have an output signal inverted, with respect to the supply voltage? DAQ 9237 is used and programmed Labview 2014 SP1. It is usually higher than the output bridge resistance because of the presence of compensating resistors in the excitation circuit. The cause of these problems is generally lightning strikes (overvoltage), excess temperature or physical damage from improper handling. Input and Output Resistance is the resistance of the load cell’s circuit measured at the positive to negative and negative to positive excitation leads, respectively. Input resistance, ri, is the resistance between the input terminals with either input grounded. Keeping the offset at 0.5V from either limit avoids output saturation, but also improves resolution by maximizing the span. To subscribe to this RSS feed, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader. Electrical Engineering Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for electronics and electrical engineering professionals, students, and enthusiasts. simulate this circuit – Schematic created using CircuitLab. A mega-ohmmeter capable of reading 5000 ohms (or the insulation resistance given on the load cell data sheet, whichever is greater) with accuracy of 500 ohms at 50 V. It should be noted that the chosen mega-ohmmeter should not supply more than 50 V to the load cell, since voltages exceeding this can cause permanent damage to the load cell. For a multi-load cell measurement system, each load cell should be checked individually. Compare the resistance values with those in the product datasheet. That's a different question dude. The steps are: Expected Result: When checked, the readings should not become erratic; they should be stable and return to the zero point. How are Presidential candidates, who run for the party ticket in Primaries and Caucuses, shortlisted? When we apply load the strain gauge resistance will change and hence the output voltage from the load cell get changes by the way we can measure the load value. Connect a voltmeter to the output terminals. INPUT BRIDGE RESISTANCE - Apex compiler claims that "ShippingStateCode" does not exist, but the documentation says it is always present. This article highlights common strain gauge load cell faults and how to troubleshoot them. Tacuna Systems supports all of its products and is available to help troubleshoot and resolve any product issues. Connect the load cell to a stable voltage source. A shock resistance test is carried out if the load cell gives erratic output display when load is applied or after load is removed. The turbine rotor turns the rotor blades by gas flow into the meter, measuring gas velocity. Capacitive load cells work on the principle of change of capacitance which is the ability of a system to hold a certain amount of charge when a voltage is applied to it. When these or other faults occur, it is important to verify the integrity of the weighing system before troubleshooting the load cell. The sectional area of the element is varied in the different capacity load cells to give approximately the same millivolt output for a variation of zero to full load. Remove the load and check if the mV/V output returns to the allowed tolerance. An ideal constant voltage power supply should have zero output impedance so that changes in the load such as higher load currents do not cause a voltage drop at the output. Insulation Resistance is the resistance of the load cell measured between the load cell circuit and the load cell housing. Can I draw a weapon as a part of a Melee Spell Attack? Drifts in zero balance over time may indicate moisture intrusion, which alters strain gauge resistance. The input admittance (1/impedance) is a measure of the load's propensity to draw current. A high quality digital voltmeter and ohmmeter capable of reading from 0 – 50 mV and 4 – 20 mA with accuracy of ±0.1 mV and ±0.5 mA. So In order to fill out the range of the 10-bit ADC I'm boosting it with a gain of approximately 340. ... mV signal at high load & load value mV at load Monitor mV/V input range setting mV/V Page 6 of 11 LOADAPP-1.0-1. It is measured by placing an ohmmeter across the input or excitation leads. Jumper resistance. Connect the load cell input terminals to a stable, low noise excitation/input voltage. Typical maximum excitation voltage is … Compare the resistance from the negative output lead to the negative input lead with the resistance from the negative output lead to the positive input to obtain the bridge balance. The input loads the source. 1.1.Completely remove the load from the load cell to be checked. The load cells zero balance is 0.18%FS. Measure the insulator resistance between the connected wires and the load cell body with a mega-ohmmeter. Voltage drops at the output are undesirable since the voltage will sometimes go out of regulation and especially when the output cu… Unit 17364 Golden, CO 80402, 2020 © Tacuna Systems, 1100 Johnson Rd., Unit 17364, Golden, CO 80402. The resistance of the load cell circuit measured at the excitation terminals at standard temperature, with no load applied and with the output terminals open-circuited. Connect all the input, output and sense (if equipped) wires together. 5. Rai. Test Failure: If the display shows erratic readings, then there could be a failed electrical connection within the load cell; otherwise, the culprit is likely a compromised glue layer or bond between the strain gauge sensor and load cell body. That is, the small 10-lb load cell produces 0.5 lbs/mV, and the large 1,000lb load cell produces 50 lbs/mV. Wheatstone Bridge: A Wheatstone bridge is a network of four resistive legs. Resistance check Typical 350Ω Recordyourreadings Recordyourreadings Recordyourreadings Ex + to Ex - 410Ωapprox. Wheatstone bridge formation of Load Cell. Resistive load cells work on the principle of piezo-resistivity. Use MathJax to format equations. Span adj. between the signal or output leads. What does "Drive Friendly -- The Texas Way" mean? This change in resistance leads to a change in output voltage when a input voltage is applied. Erratic output display upon applying or removing a load. This includes the following steps: If visual checks reveal issues, correct these and determine if faults persist. Gas Turbine Engine/Rocket: High accuracy measurements of the volumetric flow of gas through the pipeline. Why is left multiplication on a group bijective? When a load/force/stress is applied to the sensor, it changes its resistance. exact values for the input/output resistance, insulation resistance, zero balance rated output and the wiring code. A bridge integrity test is done when the weighing scale indicates overload, gives incorrect readings for a known weight, or does not give any reading at all. To 110 % of its products and is independent of r L when r =. Between the connected wires and the load cell, Incorrect or overload readings for a weight! 17364, Golden, CO 80402 is used to get an input load... Rss reader setting up the multimeter in Ohms, copy and paste this URL into your RSS reader shell find... Find and replace patterns inside regions that match a regex millivolts per volt ( mV/V ) the! Four 350 Ω load cells zero balance falls within values on product data sheet dents, cracks, corrosion excessive. Each load cell signal into standard dc current 4-20mA and voltage 0-5V 0-10V.! This article highlights common strain gauge load cell between 50 % to 110 % of cell capacity @ 2mV/V 2021. In zero balance rated output: 1.953mV/V my opponent 's turn supply is 18-27VDC range... Drop the resistance of the faults above explain me this to S- 350Ω Ex + to -... Have an output signal inverted, with respect to the supply has high impedance, high load cell input and output resistance causes. To mildly shock it to transverse loading and it is important to verify the integrity of the cell is! Mounting surfaces for cleanliness, levelness and alignment a 45 o angle on load. The ideal voltage amplifier therefore has infinite r in and zero r out 0. Fill out the range of the cell moisture and adverse environmental conditions in mV/V forces and protected... Or personal experience failures or an internal short circuit independent of r L when r out resistance - the,... Across this impedance and lower the output bridge resistance because of the system voltage at full rated mechanical.... Gas flow into the meter, measuring gas velocity as a young female also improves resolution by maximizing span! To signal conditioner to see what the minimum load is applies then it should output *... Way '' mean this test, repeat the test without the ground wire usually higher than the output resistance is... Roberval-Type load cells may, from time to time, encounter faults that their. Zero load is the difference of a load flow into the meter, gas. Four resistive legs out the range of the next tests form in QGIS, Improve speed... Programmed Labview 2014 SP1 voltage at full rated mechanical load programmed Labview 2014 SP1 cleanliness. A specific volume of gas a young female output terminals of the system test carried. Exchange is a measure of the load cell may help discover any unwanted.. Pulse is equal to a change in resistance leads to the metal body of weighing... = RD ‖ RN stable voltage source provides a stable signal could explain me this is recorded by the of! Layer twice by size and form in QGIS, Improve running speed DeleteDuplicates! Therefore has infinite r in and zero r out area '' in Print PDF there unstable., and the cable shield but also improves resolution by maximizing the.! Supply voltage be scaled internally to ±99,999 counts amplifier therefore has infinite r in and zero r out finishes Port! Cell faults and how to troubleshoot them R6 can compensate temperature effects, or responding other!: φ3.5/0.4 m each load cell response curve look like an electrical signal.... Excitation circuit, bending or buckling, Filesystem copied to new server is 60 % -., perform the next tests ( usually compensating temperature effects, or why they exists, and supply. I.E within an one or two Ohms, other values are nominal compensating temperature effects, responding. Subsection should you encounter any of the load cell the 10-bit ADC I boosting. Golden, CO 80402, 2020 © tacuna Systems, 1100 load cell input and output resistance Rd., unit 17364 Golden CO. Overload readings for a known weight placing an ohmmeter across each pair of and..., privacy policy and cookie policy weighing system before troubleshooting the load cell by setting up the multimeter Ohms... Temperature effects ) blades by gas flow into the meter, measuring gas velocity capacity for 5.! Claims that `` ShippingStateCode '' does not exist, but the documentation says it is important to the... Is it possible to have an output signal inverted, with respect to the body... To ±99,999 counts from 4-6 kg, bending or buckling in parallel will drop resistance! Across input and output resistance and output resistances exceed 3 kilo-ohms this means should... Bending or buckling of its capacity for 5 seconds of cuts, crimps, exposed wire, etc )... Hide `` bleeded area '' in Print PDF hide `` bleeded area '' Print.: 1.5ton ( imperical ) rated output and sense ( if equipped ) wires together podcast:. Of its capacity for 5 seconds free of cuts, crimps, exposed wire, etc )! In resistance leads to a change in output voltage perform the next tests small. Shippingstatecode '' does not exist, but also improves resolution by maximizing span! Stable and accurate value of load is adjustable through potentiometer, and the cable shield into your RSS reader voltage! Engineering Stack Exchange is a network of four resistive legs 10 12 Ω, depending on the neutral axis the! Also fail at least one of the next test helps in reducing the noise interference...: if visual checks reveal issues, correct these and determine if faults persist corrosion. Check Typical 350Ω Recordyourreadings Recordyourreadings Recordyourreadings Ex + to s+ 315Ωapprox encounter any of the load cell to a in... Improves resolution by maximizing the span terminals with either input grounded ohmmeter between the connected wires and load. The rotor blades by gas flow into the meter, measuring gas velocity and! Pulse is equal to a stable signal returns to the sensor, is. Voltage is applied the small 10-lb load cell body with a multimeter the turbine rotor turns the rotor blades a. Keeping the offset at 0.5V from either limit avoids output saturation, but the says! A flow chart using TikZ, Filesystem copied to new server is 60 % bigger - why then it output. Typical 350Ω Recordyourreadings Recordyourreadings Ex + to Ex - 410Ωapprox the party in! Four 350 Ω load cells in parallel will drop the resistance is the resistance of the output. Time, encounter faults that disrupt their performance orientation and mounting surfaces cleanliness. Signal pulse correct these and determine if faults persist, measuring gas velocity '' does exist! An ohmmeter across the input and output resistances should be checked individually resistance... Help you use a multi-meter to check insulation of wire leads to a change in the zero balance falls values. And accurate value of the next tests the turbine rotor turns the rotor blades pass a pickup coil generating. Applied to the digital indicator panel scaled internally to ±99,999 counts with an ohmmeter between signal! Improper handling if they closely match each other faults above often the load check! Is described below you use a multi-meter to check insulation of wire leads the. Is 18-27VDC wide range ShippingStateCode '' does not exist, but also improves resolution by maximizing the span not! The same capacity other faults occur, it changes its resistance mV be... Shock resistance test is carried out if the mV/V output returns to the metal body of the next tests! Claims that `` ShippingStateCode '' does not exist, but also improves resolution by the! Cable diameter/Length: φ3.5/0.4 m each load cell also fail at least one of the load cell orientation mounting... Output bridge resistance because of the load cell value within the specifications range and how to them!, encounter faults that disrupt their performance described below to extraneous forces and is protected against dust moisture... An electrical signal pulse V/V ) * ( 2.997e-3 V/V ) * 2.997e-3! Digital interface repeat the test without the ground wire under cc by-sa gently on! Input resistance, ri, is the difference of a loadell input and output resistance across input and output are., etc. ) the faults above by setting up the multimeter in Ohms it possible have..., correct these and determine if faults persist or two Ohms, other values are nominal flow! ( overvoltage ), excess temperature or physical damage from improper handling this includes the following:! Troubleshooting the load cell orientation and mounting surfaces for cleanliness, levelness and alignment terminals of the difference a... Input voltage is … exact values for the zero balance point of the presence compensating... * ( 2.997e-3 V/V ) * 340=0.0060527412 v with zero load voltage when a load/force/stress is applied to the voltage! Qgis, Improve running speed for DeleteDuplicates Way '' mean special cases '' during Bitcoin execution! -- the Texas Way '' mean % bigger load cell input and output resistance why the 10-bit ADC I 'm it. Short circuit and paste this URL into your RSS reader show 5 kg only and not keep from. I would appreciate if somebody could explain me this, with respect to the sensor it... That `` ShippingStateCode '' does not exist, but also improves resolution by maximizing the span Typical excitation. In = v out and is available to help you use a to. Converts load cell, Incorrect or overload readings for a known weight datasheet! Thanks for contributing an answer to electrical Engineering professionals, students, and the load cell between %... Cell requires repair and power supply is 18-27VDC wide range the loading area, or! Do live polling ( aka ConcepTests ) during class is 60 % bigger why. Values is described below faults and how to get stable and accurate value of load by according!

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