Pahus L, Burgel PR, Roche N, Paillasseur JL, Chanez P. Randomized controlled trials of pharmacological treatments to prevent COPD exacerbations: applicability to real-life patients. Again, these are merely examples to show threats to external validity or if research can be successfully generalized. External Validity. There are several threats that can lower external validity, among them sample characteristics, stimulus characteristics and multiple-treatment interference. Indiana University Bloomington. Population validity. associate professor of medicine, and. Below is a selection of external threats that can help guide your conclusions on the generalizability of your research results: Threat to external experimental validity. Threats to external validity. Michael RS. Threats to internal validity may be a source of extraneous variance when the findings are not significant. Anyone of these could create issues and negatively pull own the external validity. Author Information . Come let’s have a deeper look into the typical threats to internal validity that skew your study towards another direction to make the results inconclusive. 9 Most Common Threats To Internal Validity . Internal Threats. McLeod SA. BMC Pulm Med. Threats to Internal and External Validity 1. Threats to Internal and External Validity in Health Professions Education Research. Influences or forces other than the independent variable that may act to explain the study results are known as threats to internal validity. Threats to internal & external validity. Factors that threaten the validity of research findings Material for this presentation has been taken from the seminal article by Don Campbell and Julian Stanley: Experimental and quasi-experimental designs for research on teaching, which was first published as Chapter 5 in N.L Page (1963), Ed., Handbook of Research on Teaching. Threats to external validity are any factors within a study that reduce the generalisability (or generality) of the results.Dissertations can suffer from a wide range of potential threats to external validity, which have been discussed extensively in the literature (e.g., Campbell, 1963, 1969; Campbell & Stanley, 1963, 1966; Cook & Campbell, 1979). Although real-life settings present opportunities for greater generalization, they do not automatically result in externally valid research. Much like the internal threats, these are the most common challenges to external validity. Applicability of evaluation results to other populations, setting and time periods is often a question to be answered once internal validity threats have been eliminated or minimized. • Reactive effects of testing • Reactive effects of experimental setting • Selection-treatment interaction • Multiple-treatment interference. Threats to validity include: Selection--groups selected may actually be disparate prior to any treatment.. Mortality--the differences between O 1 and O 2 may be because of the drop-out rate of subjects from a specific experimental group, which would cause the groups to be unequal.. Others--Interaction of selection and maturation and interaction of selection and the experimental variable. To what population can you generalise the results of the study? Threats to external validity - Compromise confidence in stating whether study's results generalisable (4). Threats to external validity. Internal and external validity. Two types of external validity follow. Learning Outcomes. Torre, Dario M. MD, MPH, PhD; Picho, Katherine PhD. This will depend on the makeup of the people in your sample and how they were chosen. assistant professor, Department of Medicine, Uniformed Services University of the Health Sciences. 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