based on what criteria? eg. Pre- and post-test results: When the pre- or post-test is ultimately associated to the impact seen within the examine, such that the cause-and-effect relationship disappears with out these added checks Evaluation research and systematic reviews would benefit from reporting guidelines for external validity to ensure that key information is reported across studies. 2017 Aug;41(4):283-325. doi: 10.1177/0193841X16665199. This may seem like a fuzzy measure of validity to someone disciplined in quantitative research, for example, but in a science that deals in themes and context, these questions are important. In Quantitative research, reliability refers to consistency of certain measurements, and validity – to whether these measurements “measure what they are supposed to measure”. It can be divided into a population and ecological validities (“Threats to Internal & External Validity.,” n.d.). Strategies to improve reliability and validity need to be done during the research process –Post hoc processes can assess reliability and validity but they can’t improve them –“Reliability and validity are actively attained, rather than proclaimed by an external reviewer.” Be … Threat to External Validity. What is Validity and Reliability in Qualitative research? Increasing Internal and External Validity. Steps in Ensuring Validity. In group research, the primary methods used to achieve internal and external validity are randomization, the use of a research design and statistical analysis that are appropriate to the types of data collected, and … External validity is threatened when a examine doesn’t take note of the interactions of variables in the true world. Criterion-related validity indicates the extent to which the instrument’s scores correlate with an external criterion (i.e., usually another measurement from a different instrument) either at present (concurrent validity) or in the future (predictive validity). EXTERNAL VALIDITY is the extent to which you can generalize your findings to a larger group or other contexts. Focus groups tend to be strong on validity. External validity is the process of examining the results and questioning whether there are any other possible causal relationships. If your research lacks external validity, the findings cannot be applied to contexts other than the one in which you carried out your research. The external validity refers to the degree in which the experimental results of an empirical invention can be generalized to and across the individuals, settings, and time involvement. validity is a justification (part of assessment process) - how you validate? 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