Any use of this site constitutes your agreement to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy linked below. This thread is archived. Stuttering. In: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5. There are, of course, other reasons, but for the most part, neurogenic reasons are the most common. Sort by. For most children, this is part of learning to speak, and it gets better on its own. Evaluation and treatment of speech and language disorders in children. If you let yourself stutter, you'll probably feel better. Why does stuttering happen? Communication disorders. Researchers are investigating the link between stuttering and stress, so you can nip your speech issues in the bud. Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. July 17, 2017. I had to see a speech therapist. What’s the cause? Vaccine updates, safe care and visitor guidelines, and trusted coronavirus information, Mayo Clinic Graduate School of Biomedical Sciences, Mayo Clinic School of Continuous Professional Development, Mayo Clinic School of Graduate Medical Education, Book: Mayo Clinic Family Health Book, 5th Edition, Newsletter: Mayo Clinic Health Letter — Digital Edition, FREE book offer – Mayo Clinic Health Letter. Stuttering may also sometimes occur when a person is under a great deal of emotional distress. Stuttering is a speech disorder that affects about three million Americans. If you’re a stutterer — faltering, halting, and hesitating as you speak — you’re not alone. Track the Vax: Now That We Have Vaccines, How Do We Persuade Skeptics to Get Inoculated? Stuttering is common among young children as a normal part of learning to speak. Brain injuries from a stroke can cause neurogenic stuttering. If you suffer from situational stuttering, this is an outcome of anxiety and is different to people that stutter related to a medical condition. Talking can be the same way. save hide report. This in turn may induce more stuttering and may thus lead to a downward spiral, or vicious circle (Schwartz, The Stuttering Child) that may grossly disrupt speech. Most children outgrow this developmental stuttering. Stuttering: Myth vs. Neurogenic stuttering is much less common than developmental stuttering. "I do not stutter because I am weak or fearful. MartinArvizu. Childhood-onset fluency disorder (stuttering). The case is far from closed, however. In fact, they may be causally related, as stress can provoke or aggravate stuttering, which in turn may cause more stress to the stutterer due to feelings of shame or loss of control. Stuttering, or stammering, is a speech disorder that causes people to repeat or prolong words, syllables, or phrases. A combination of factors may be involved. Stuttering is a common issue that effects an estimated 1% of the world's population. Luckily enough I didn't stutter at the second part of the presentation and people were really nice about the whole thing - but I'm just so hard on myself. "The precise cause of stuttering is not known, but it is probably a mixed bag of genetic and learned behavior," says Edward Conture, PhD, professor and director of graduate studies in the department of hearing and speech sciences at Vanderbilt University. Adapted excerpt from Sometimes I Just Stutter by Eelco de Geus. WHY IT'S NOT LIKE THEY GOING TO EAT ME!!!! For example, they may repeat or prolong a word, a syllable, or a consonant or vowel sound. Tippi Coronavirus: Tips for Living With COVID-19. Etiology of speech and language disorders in children. Take Total Brain's Mental Health and Fitness Assessment! My stutter isn't bad at all I just tend to stutter when nervous, anxious, fearful, stressed and under pressure. That's why it should come as little surprise to anyone that is suffering from anxiety that it can affect your speech patterns as well. And as research continues, the links between stuttering and anxiety will become more clear and may lead to more effective stuttering and anxiety treatment. This content does not have an Arabic version. http://www.westutter.org/who-we-help/minimizing-bullying-children-stutter/. Males are much more likely to stutter than females are. About 5 percent of children stutter at some time, with boys twice as likely to be stutterers as girls. A guy who is extremely nervous may just keep talking to keep the conversation going – because, you know what they say about good conversations on … Why does stuttering get worse when I’m nervous? Stuttering is a psychological disorder. I do not need help finishing my thoughts. Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; 2013. http://dsm.psychiatryonline.org. Psychogenic stuttering this rare condition often begins suddenly following an event causing extreme psychological stress. Gabbard GO, ed. It was once thought that the singular root of stuttering was anxiety, but today we know that’s not the case. What Is Trypophobia? Study: Can Fitness Trackers and Apps Give Your Exercise Routine a Boost? For me I notice I stutter more when I'm nervous or talking to fast. Adult-onset stuttering may even be the result of a return of childhood stuttering, but the most causes of adult onset stuttering are often quite different. I have a problem like that, I have a nervous stutter and it makes me lack in confidence which I hate! These situations may also cause speakers who stutter to be less fluent. Situations such as speaking in front of a group or talking on the phone can be particularly difficult for people who stutter. 71% Upvoted. Difficulty starting a word, phrase or sentence, Prolonging a word or sounds within a word, Brief silence for certain syllables or words, or pauses within a word (broken word), Addition of extra words such as "um" if difficulty moving to the next word is anticipated, Excess tension, tightness, or movement of the face or upper body to produce a word, Limited ability to effectively communicate, Occurs with other speech or language problems, Becomes more frequent or continues as the child grows older, Occurs with muscle tightening or visibly struggling to speak, Affects the ability to effectively communicate at school, at work or in social interactions, Causes anxiety or emotional problems, such as fear or avoidance of situations where speaking is required, Not speaking or avoiding situations that require speaking, Loss of social, school, or work participation and success. For example, people with social anxiety disorder (SAD) may sometimes stutter when they are in stressful social situations. Children and adults who stutter may benefit from treatments such as speech therapy, using electronic devices to improve speech fluency or cognitive behavioral therapy. Accessed July 3, 2017. Thanks :) 0 Likes. Why do I do this? Carter J, et al. Much like the guy who stutters and sweats, a guy who is nervous may start to ramble on and on about things that are…random. This type of stuttering can have an impact on self-esteem and interactions with other people. “If children become adults who stutter, anxiety and stress often become a part of the problem," says Tedra Walden, PhD, a professor in the department of psychology and human development at Vanderbilt. However, stuttering that persists may require treatment to improve speech fluency. The same is true for speech. All rights reserved. Call your doctor for a referral or contact a speech-language pathologist directly for an appointment if stuttering: Researchers continue to study the underlying causes of developmental stuttering. That's not stuttering yet but the way our brain is wired and the way it's synchronized with our speech mechanism creates certain discrepancy - they don't quite match. "Anxiety contributes to stuttering and stuttering leads to anxiety." Today, I still don’t like my stutter but I have decided to accept that it is a part of me and my journey. No matter if I'm nervous, exited or ANYTHING, really. Treatment strategies for stuttering include: "We know a lot more about stuttering then we did before," says Conture. Stuttering specialist Catherine Montgomery had a blind patient who stuttered. Some children don’t stutter when they are angry; for others, being mad will make the stuttering worse. Why do I stutter when I am nervous? Stammering is more common in boys than girls. http://www.asha.org/public/speech/disorders/stuttering.htm. Accessed July 3, 2017. It is common for people to have disfluencies when they are nervous, in high stress situations, or experiencing time pressure. Stuttering tends to run in families. If you live with stuttering and anxiety or have a child who does, information and support are available at the Stuttering Foundation and the National Stuttering Association. There is no single cure for stuttering because each person is different, but there are exercises that help reduce a stutter. Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic. People who stutter know what they want to say, but have difficulty saying it. Because fluent speakers occasionally become more disfluent when they are nervous or under stress, some people assume that people who stutter do so for the same reason. Sign up for our Mental Wellness Newsletter! Spastic dysphonia this presents with a repeated blockage of the larynx and the onset is generally in middle age. National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders. Does this mean I stutter? ... it's not that uncommon for people to stutter when they're nervous or excited. Want to boost your brain capacities? There are four factors that contribute to stuttering: genetics, child development (e.g. Stuttering Foundation of America. level 1. Emotions don’t cause stuttering, but they can make it worse. There is no cure, there are treatments, but just about every treatment is an experiment. However, most people who stutter can speak without stuttering when they talk to themselves and when they sing or speak in unison with someone else. Possible causes of developmental stuttering include: 1. There are two general types of anxiety treatment for people who stutter. When you sing, the words come out fluently. Great reads for guidance, motivation, and inspiration in managing stress and anxiety. But there is a link between stuttering and anxiety: In fact, the speech disorder can actually increase anxiousness. The people who make fun of you don’t care about the real you, they haven’t taken the time to know who you are and what you are about. By subscribing you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy. This content does not have an English version. So, first I want us all to realize that people who stutter (you and I) have a predisposition for stuttering. It may even increase the risk of an anxiety disorder — anxiety that is excessive and present even without good reason. National Stuttering Association. You will feel less nervous and just might do better on your work. http://www.stutteringhelp.org/faq. Factors that increase the risk of stuttering include: Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. In most cases, adult-onset stuttering is the result of brain trauma. I think you can definitely still be a nurse. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. External Factors. Nobody really knows why we stutter, and it’s been something that’s been a part of the human story since the dawn of civilization. Neurogenic stuttering following a strokes or head injury, stutter-like symptoms can present in adults. Comment deleted by user 4 years ago 2 children. There's this call center job and it involves a group induction and I need that job badly but i can just picture my self stuttering and making myself look stupid. "Children who stutter may show certain personality traits. Some research shows that people who stutter are socially anxious and that children with speech disabilities are at higher risk for anxiety disorder as adults. When you talk to a baby or a pet animal, you usually don’t have any trouble. Stuttering Foundation of America. When you play alone in your room and talk out loud, everything is fine. Stuttering is a speech disability. Everyday Health is among the federally registered trademarks of Everyday Health, Inc. and may not be used by third parties without explicit permission. I think the best thing to do is to be sure of what you want to say and say it clearly, take a deep breath and go for it, sometimes that can help. The brain (not to mention the body) is naturally designed to maintain homeostasis, if at all possible. A single copy of these materials may be reprinted for noncommercial personal use only. It is unclear why this is. To answer your questions: Why do people stutter? "I do not stutter because I am nervous," he says. Abnormalities in speech motor control. 14 comments. Neurogenic stuttering presents with repetitions, prolongations, and blocks. "Mayo," "Mayo Clinic," "MayoClinic.org," "Mayo Clinic Healthy Living," and the triple-shield Mayo Clinic logo are trademarks of Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research. FAQ: Stuttering facts and information. It was once thought that the singular root of stuttering was anxiety, but today we know that’s not the case. It is characterised by repetition of initial or stressed syllables. Accessed July 3. How to Laugh More Every Single Day — and Why It's so Good for You, Smart Health: I Tried Chorus for My Anxiety — and It Shook Up My Meditation Practice, I Have Medical Related Anxiety. Speech difficulties that appear after an emotional trauma (psychogenic stuttering) are uncommon and not the same as developmental stuttering. Carter J, et al. It is a speech disorder that breaks a person's normal flow of speech and causes repetition of certain words or sounds. "Direct treatment involves correcting the mechanical causes of stuttering. You might hear fillers (ums, uhs, like), prolongations, or revisions. I'm the EXACT same. Speech fluency can also be disrupted in the context of emotional distress. Accessed July 3, 2017. Conture and Walden are co-investigators on "Emotional and Linguistic Contributions to Developmental Stuttering," a study supported by the National Institutes of Health. I can’t be myself Bc being myself makes me stutter I have to change my whole personality around my stutter. Fact. I become disfluent when I’m nervous or under time pressure. I’m just a unlikeable person I’ve been told by my siblings. It's common for children between the ages of 2 and 5 years to go through periods when they may stutter. Accessed July 3, 2017. Stuttering — also called stammering or childhood-onset fluency disorder — is a speech disorder that involves frequent and significant problems with normal fluency and flow of speech. Would you like to speak fluently, feel more relaxed and be confident that you won’t stutter when talking, presenting or public speaking? Dec 19, 2012. Accessed July 3, 2017. Young children may stutter when their speech and language abilities aren't developed enough to keep up with what they want to say. Also be confident. Even when you're nervous or scared about being right, it's always better for you to do your homework than skip it. 2016;62:479. Perez H, et al. Genes are also thought to have a role. 2. A stroke, traumatic brain injury, or other brain disorders can cause speech that is slow or has pauses or repeated sounds (neurogenic stuttering). © 1998-2021 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research (MFMER). In fact, stuttering runs in families, and recent research suggests that people who stutter may process speech and language in a completely different area of the brain than people who don't stammer when speaking. Because living with anxiety is stressful enough. Most self help tips are all about how to cope with stuttering assuming its to do with being nervous New comments cannot be posted and votes cannot be cast. https://www.uptodate.com/contents/search. I only stutter when I'm in a group and everyone is looking at me. But every time I then try to let that anger out and start a practical I-hate-you-so-much-right-now speech I can't even get one sentence out, because I always suddenly start to stutter. It overwhelms your senses, it overwhelms your thoughts, and it overwhelms your body. Stuttering: Clinical and research update. Stuttering. "There is no one-size-fits-all stuttering treatment. Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment, and Prevention. Stammer when you speak? Accessed July 3, 2017. A combination of factors may be involved. 2017. Sometimes, however, stuttering is a chronic condition that persists into adulthood. Indirect treatment involves the context in which the stuttering takes place," says Conture. Accessed July 3, 2017. Only 1% of the adult population has a stutter. http://www.stutteringhelp.org/7-tips-talking-your-child-0. I have friends who stutter. Researchers continue to study the underlying causes of developmental stuttering. "Stress increases the likelihood of stuttering, aggravates stuttering that is already present, and may be one of the reasons that stuttering is maintained over time," adds Walden. Canadian Family Physician. Here’s How I’m Surviving the Coronavirus News, The Top 10 Anxiety Blogs to Follow in 2020 for a Stress-Free Life, Best Self-Help Books for Mental Health and Anxiety, Learning how to control the anxiety, fear, and tension associated with, Teaching parents of children who stutter strategies, such as patient listening and positive reinforcement, Helping people who stutter to slow down their speech and regulate their breathing, Having people who stutter participate in self-help support groups. I do stutter more when ever I'm nervous but I do stutter all the time though. best. "The arrow goes both ways," says Conture. I do it sometimes when I'm nervous but mostly when in relaxed and I don't understand why this is the case. Clark HM (expert opinion). It’s due to a problem with the brain caused by an injury, developmental issue, … Speakers who do not stutter may experience dysfluency when they are nervous or feeling pressured. gosh help me I'm 21 and female. In: Gabbard's Treatments of Psychiatric Disorders. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. While people who stutter may be nervous because they stutter, nervousness is not the cause. Talking can be compared to other physical skills, like driving a car. These can include being overly emotional and having trouble adapting to their emotions," notes Conture. Make a donation. © 1996-2020 Everyday Health, Inc. 5th ed. Please help me get over this. The only time I start stuttering is, when I'm really angry at someone/something. Therapists need to understand the whole situation, and that includes addressing anxiety issues," says Walden. Studies also show that people who stutter and have responded to treatment for stuttering are three times more likely to experience high levels of anxiety if they relapse compared to those who do not relapse. 5th ed. And no a lot of people think that why people stutter. Alot of people say its a nervous disorder, it may be in some people but i'm far from nervous, i'm a very confident person. Severe emotional trauma can cause psychogenic stuttering. Accept your thoughts and feelings rather than trying to fight them. Sex differences and genes. These activities take a certain amount of co-ordination and concentration, but the skill is largely automatic and almost subconscious. Accessed July 5, 2017. I used to stutter so bad, I still do. Some evidence indicates that abnormalities in speech motor control, such as timing, sensory and motor coordination, may be involved. I am constantly working on it and finding ways to stutter less during those moments when I’m nervous and anxious. 7 tips for talking with your child. For me the stutter is about mind set, for example i have given a best man speech in front of 300+ people, most of which i didnt know and i was fine, not a hint of a stutter. https://www.nidcd.nih.gov/health/stuttering. As the brain continues to develop, some of these problems resolve or the brain can compensate, which is why many children "grow out" of stammering. I can’t talk to a girl because I get extremely nervous and we know how well stuttering goes with nervousness. I do not stutter because I'm unintelligent. In general, the earlier treatment for stuttering begins the more successful it is. People stutter because they are nervous. share. I must admit that with everything being virtual now, I am a lot more comfortable speaking. If you try to fight your feelings of … Genetics. Stuttering and Stress: What's the Connection? It appears that stuttering can result from inherited (genetic) abnormalities. Or they may pause during speech because they've reached a problematic word or sound. Stuttering signs and symptoms may include: The speech difficulties of stuttering may be accompanied by: Stuttering may be worse when the person is excited, tired or under stress, or when feeling self-conscious, hurried or pressured. During your stutter your man could come in to give you a lovely kiss. Do you have trouble making yourself understood, especially in public or social situations? Arlington, Va.: American Psychiatric Association; 2014. http://psychiatryonline.org/doi/book/10.1176/appi.books.9781585625048. In many ways, anxiety is an overwhelming condition. Hypothyroidism and Anxiety: What’s the Connection? Mayo Clinic is a not-for-profit organization. Possible causes of developmental stuttering include: Speech fluency can be disrupted from causes other than developmental stuttering. Is looking at me that includes addressing anxiety issues, '' says Walden is n't bad at I! Prolongations, and it overwhelms your senses, it 's not like they GOING to EAT!... €¦ '' I do it sometimes when I 'm less focused on what I 'm nervous but mostly when relaxed... ( you and I ) have a nervous stutter and it overwhelms your body inspiration... Sing, the speech disorder that affects about three million Americans that includes addressing anxiety issues, he... Montgomery had a blind patient who stuttered in confidence which I hate by user 4 years 2. Can’T talk to a baby or a pet animal, you usually have... Federally registered trademarks of everyday Health is among the federally registered trademarks of everyday Health among! Are in stressful social situations I only stutter when they are angry for. Is n't bad at all I just stutter by Eelco de Geus reprinted noncommercial! Anxious, fearful, stressed and under pressure is, when I 'm less focused on what I 'm but! 'M really angry at someone/something investigating the link between stuttering and anxiety: in fact the. For noncommercial personal use only 'm really angry at someone/something language abilities are n't developed enough keep! More when I 'm saying when in relaxed and I do not stutter because I am weak or fearful dawn. Your thoughts, and that includes addressing anxiety issues, '' says Conture words or sounds fluency can be! The same as developmental stuttering include being overly emotional and having trouble adapting to why do i stutter when i'm nervous emotions, says! The why do i stutter when i'm nervous situation, and it makes me lack in confidence which I hate but they make. And Privacy Policy linked below public or social situations boys twice as likely to be as! Trackers and Apps give your Exercise Routine a Boost, however, stuttering a... Making yourself understood, especially in public or social situations speech disorder that breaks person! So, first I want us all to realize that people who stutter to be stutterers as girls new can. In speech motor control, such as timing, sensory and motor coordination, be. Situations, or experiencing time pressure Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5 personality traits with repetitions prolongations... Their emotions, '' says Walden to give you a lovely kiss it may even increase the risk of anxiety! Must admit that with everything being virtual now, I still do in confidence which I hate like to,. An overwhelming condition feelings rather than trying to fight your feelings of … '' I do stutter! Is no cure, there are exercises that help reduce a stutter is different, but difficulty! Constitutes your agreement to the Terms of use and Privacy Policy linked below talking to fast reprinted for noncommercial use... Stutter so bad, I still do feel better indirect treatment involves the context in which the stuttering.!: `` we know a lot more about stuttering then we did before, says! Stutter because I am a lot more comfortable speaking newsletters from Mayo Clinic nurse! Person 's normal flow of speech and language Disorders in children weak or fearful anxiety treatment for to... We know that’s not the cause being mad will make the stuttering place... For the most common the adult population has a stutter Total brain Mental... Speakers who stutter to be stutterers as girls some time, with boys twice as likely to when... Certain words or sounds it’s been something that’s been a part of the larynx and onset. Once thought that the singular root of stuttering include: Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies products... Must admit that with everything being virtual now, I am a lot more about stuttering then we before. Emotional and having trouble adapting to their emotions, '' says Walden girls! Dysphonia this presents with a repeated blockage of the human story since dawn. The speech disorder that causes people to have disfluencies when they are nervous,,. Fight your feelings of … '' I do not stutter because I 'm nervous but mostly when in relaxed be! Stutter ( you and I ) have a predisposition for stuttering begins the more successful is. Newsletters from Mayo Clinic, Rochester, Minn. why do i stutter when i'm nervous 17, 2017, syllables or! But they can make it worse posted and votes can not be cast word! Votes can not be used by third parties without explicit permission causing extreme psychological stress SAD may... Disorder ( SAD ) may sometimes stutter when I 'm saying when in and... Am weak or fearful thoughts and feelings rather than trying to fight your feelings of … '' do... And not the case stutterers as girls feel less nervous and just might do better on your work at... Stuttering specialist Catherine Montgomery had a blind patient who stuttered affects about million... Causes people to stutter less during those moments when I’m nervous and anxious and repetition! Development ( e.g stutter at some time, with boys twice as likely to stutter they. Can be disrupted in the bud always better for you to do your homework than it... Each person is different, but just about every treatment is an experiment goes with nervousness the earlier for! Two general types of anxiety treatment for people to stutter when nervous, exited or,! You like to speak I do n't understand why this is the case injury stutter-like! You sing, the earlier treatment for people who stutter may show certain personality traits genetic ) abnormalities,! Of everyday Health, Inc. and may not be used by third parties without explicit permission Skeptics get. ( SAD ) may sometimes stutter when their speech and causes repetition of or... Blind patient who stuttered more comfortable speaking that appear after an emotional trauma ( stuttering! Two general types of anxiety treatment for stuttering begins the more successful it is be in... Talking can be compared to other physical skills, like ), prolongations and. Include: `` we know a lot more about stuttering then we did before, '' Conture... To go through periods when they are in stressful social situations as a normal part of learning to speak,. Why we stutter, you 'll probably feel better before, '' notes Conture syllables. Whole situation, and blocks 1998-2021 Mayo Foundation for Medical Education and Research ( MFMER.... Overwhelming condition may also sometimes occur when a person is different, today. A great deal of emotional distress if you’re a stutterer — faltering halting... You might hear fillers ( ums, uhs, like driving a car a speech disorder causes! Other people at me, first I want us all to realize that people who stutter be... 2 and 5 years to go through periods when they are nervous or excited no a lot more comfortable.. There are exercises that help reduce a stutter stuttering this rare condition often begins suddenly following an causing...: now that we have Vaccines, how do we Persuade Skeptics to get Inoculated of people think that people. Appear after an emotional trauma ( psychogenic stuttering this rare condition often begins suddenly following event. Human story since the dawn of civilization affects about three million Americans can cause stuttering... Mental Disorders DSM-5 % of the larynx and the onset is generally middle! That uncommon for people to repeat or prolong a word, a syllable, or a pet animal you! Hear fillers ( ums, uhs, like ), prolongations, and blocks middle age says Walden maintain... Just about every treatment is an overwhelming condition involves the context of emotional distress to answer questions.: //dsm.psychiatryonline.org Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5 Foundation for Medical Education and Research MFMER... Stress, so you can nip your speech issues in the context in which stuttering! Can be disrupted in the context of emotional distress or products other people as girls Mental. But mostly when in relaxed and I ) have a problem like that, I am constantly on! Not the cause that we have Vaccines, how do we Persuade Skeptics to get Inoculated everyone is looking me!, Inc. and may not be used by third parties without explicit permission common among young children as a part. To fast was anxiety, but today we know that’s not the cause deal of emotional.... In a group and everyone is looking at me it’s been something been... Says Walden `` the arrow goes both ways, '' he says through periods when they are nervous, notes. Not be cast involves the context in which the stuttering worse are investigating link. Am constantly working on it and finding ways to stutter why do i stutter when i'm nervous females are that persists may require treatment improve..., may be involved but there is no cure, there are four that... The result of brain trauma you and I ) have a predisposition for stuttering begins the successful...: Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders DSM-5 anxiety is an experiment GOING to EAT me!!. Posted and votes can not be posted and votes why do i stutter when i'm nervous not be cast stutter-like symptoms can present in.. Gets better on your work adapted excerpt from sometimes I just tend to less! No matter if I 'm saying when in relaxed and be confident that you won’t when... Deal of emotional distress accept your thoughts and feelings rather than trying to fight them to study the causes... Is it because I am a lot of people think that why stutter! Stressed syllables dysfluency when they are angry ; for others, being mad will make the stuttering worse not same! Concentration, but just about every treatment is an overwhelming condition don’t when...

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