The use of chlorophyll is also associated with weight loss; however, the research on this topic is quite limited. Figure: Structure of different types of Chlorophyll. Chlorophyll c– found in certain photosynthetic Chromista and in some marine algae. The overall process of chlorophyll biosynthesis can take place in the form of two pathways; light-independent pathway and light-dependent pathway. These are distinguished from chlorophyll a in the formyl substitution in the C-7 position of the ring. The protoporphyrin is then converted into Mg-protoporphyrin by the insertion of Mg2+ ions in the presence of the Mg-chelatase enzyme. Rüdiger W. (2006) Biosynthesis of Chlorophylls a and b: The Last Steps. They are related to chlorophylls, which are the primary pigments in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria.Organisms that contain bacteriochlorophyll conduct photosynthesis to sustain their energy requirements, but do not produce oxygen as a byproduct. Chlorophyll a and b shows maximum absorption in blue-violet and orange-red region of the visible light. Commercial Applications of Chlorophyll Derivatives. There are several different types of chlorophyll including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll c, chlorophyll d, chlorophyll e and bacterio-chlorophyll. John C. Kephart. The properties of chlorophyllin are similar to that of chlorophyll, and it has similar health benefits. Chlorophyll e is found to be similar to bacteriochlorophylls that are distributed in cyanobacteria. Chlorophyll can be found in plants or taken as a supplement. “Chlorophyll Derivatives: Their Chemistry, Commercial Preparation, and Uses.”. 126.96.36.199 Chlorophyll e. The largest known Chlorophyta is Ventricaria ventricosa. While using topically on the skin surface, itching, or irritation might be observed. The ability of different organisms to synthesize chlorophyll in the absence of light is due to the production of specific light-independent enzymes. Chlorophyll is an important class of pigment molecules that act as a principal photoreceptor in the case of most green plants. Evidence that chlorophyll f functions solely as an antenna pigment in far-red-light photosystem I from Fischerella thermalis PCC 7521. The basic structure of a chlorophyll molecule is a porphyrin ring, co-ordinated to a central atom. Properties of light. Chlorophyll e– found only in algae. Chlorophyll is unique to other pigments in that it absorbs light rays of a particular wavelength that have enough energy to build tissues. The name chlorophyll comes from the Greek words chloros (green) and phyllon (leaf). Chlorophyll d– found only in red algae. Glutamate 1-semialdehyde is then converted into 5-aminolevulinate in the presence of glutamate 1-semialdehyde enzyme. Chlorophyll B's role is to help organisms absorb higher frequency blue light for use in photosynthesis. Chlorophyll can be defined as the pigment responsible for giving green color to plants and algae. Among all different types of chlorophylls, the structure of. (2006) Chlorophyll c Pigments: Current Status. In: Eaton-Rye J., Tripathy B., Sharkey T. (eds) Photosynthesis. Click for 3D structure file. Based on different studies, chlorophyll indicates anti-carcinogenic properties which help in the reduction of risks of cancer. There are various types of chlorophyll structures, but plants contain chlorophyll a and b. Schertz F.M (1927). In: Garab G. (eds) Photosynthesis: Mechanisms and Effects. Among all these five types of chlorophyll pigments, chlorophyll a and b are considered as the primary photosynthetic pigments. Blood-building properties. Chlorophyll is chemically similar to hemoglobin, a protein that is essential … The enzyme is an aminomutase that transfers the amino group from the C-2 of the substrate to the neighboring carbon atom (C-5). A typical composition of chlorophyll comprises of a porphyrin head and a long phytol tail. https://www.healthline.com/health/liquid-chlorophyll-benefits-risks. The U.S. Supreme Court: Who Are the Nine Justices on the Bench Today? The name comes from a combination of two Greek words, chloros, meaning "green" and phyllon, meaning "leaf." Bacteriochlorophyll a has an empirical formula of C 55 H 74 O 6 N 4 Mg and molecular weight of 911. Chlorophyll b is found primarily in plants as well, but this type absorbs blue light only and is yellow in pigment. The enzyme produced by angiosperm requires light energy for catalysis, which results in the dependence on light for chlorophyll biosynthesis. Advances in Photosynthesis and Respiration, vol 25. Vegan, Non-GMO Extract from Rich Mulberry Leaves with Copper for High Stability. There are various types of chlorophyll structures, but plants contain chlorophyll a and b. Springer, Dordrecht. Besides light quality, chlorophyll production and activity are influenced by mineral nutrition and chemical metabolites produced in the plant system. Chlorophyll is a photosynthetic pigment that is involved in absorbing electromagnetic radiation and aids in the conversion of light energy to chemical energy via the synthesis of organic compounds. Chlorophyll a is the most prevalent type of chlorophyll. Because it is pure chlorophyll, it does not retain the properties of alfalfa, such as being rich in trace minerals. Among all these five types of chlorophyll pigments, chlorophyll a and b are considered as the primary photosynthetic pigments. It is processed with copper to remove the magnesium molecule from the center of the chlorophyll. Springer, Dordrecht. This step takes place in the presence of NADPH and releases glutamate -1-semialdehyde. Liquid Chlorophyll Drop Supplement for Digestive, Immune 4.4 out of 5 stars 337. There are different types of chlorophylls that might differ in their chemical structures as they occur in different living organisms. The name chlorophyll comes from the Greek words chloros (green) and phyllon (leaf). Xu, H et al. Chlorophyll b absorbs mostly blue and yellow. The various types of chlorophyll are found in different organisms and are all involved in photosynthesis. The Two Types of Chlorophyll By Kimberly Balas & Steven Horne Liquid chlorophyll is water-soluble and is derived from the alfalfa plant. In the case of eukaryotic cells, two different kinds of glutamyl-tRNA synthetase are present, one in the chloroplast and the other in the cytosol. Chlorophyll a, gives absorption peaks at 430 nm and 662 nm, while Chlorophyll b gives peaks at 453 nm and 642 nm. There are two main types of chlorophyll, named chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Five types of chlorophylls occur in plants other than bacteria— a, b, c, d and e. Out of these only two chlorophylls occur in the chloroplasts of higher plants, a and b. It gets its color by reflecting green, thus giving plants their green color. Bacteriochlorophylls (BChl) are photosynthetic pigments that occur in various phototrophic bacteria.They were discovered by C. B. van Niel in 1932. National Center for Biotechnology Information. The Two Types of Chlorophyll By Kimberly Balas & Steven Horne Liquid chlorophyll is water-soluble and is derived from the alfalfa plant. Then there is carotenoids that absorb violet and blue-gree light. Because food webs in every type of ecosystem, from terrestrial to marine, begin with photosynthesis, chlorophyll can be considered a foundation for all life on Earth. In some cases, the liquid chlorophyll is flavored, which increases its freshness. Chlorophyll C is found in red algae, brown algae, and dinoflagellates 15. Light-Independent Chlorophyll Biosynthesis: Involvement of the Chloroplast Gene chlL (frxC). Six main types of chlorophylls have been found, and they have been named chlorophylls a to g. There is no consensus on whether chlorophyll e is an artefact of isolation, so I did not count it. This is where photosynthesis takes place. Chlorophyll A is found in all types of organisms that use photosynthesis, which includes both land plants and algae. Zapata M., Garrido J.L., Jeffrey S.W. NOAA Hurricane Forecast Maps Are Often Misinterpreted — Here's How to Read Them. Springer, Dordrecht. Chlorophyll d is found in a type of cyanobacterium that lives in areas lacking visible light, but containing infrared radiation (700 nm to … This process is a two-step reaction, both of which are ATP-dependent. They have various sizes, which can range from a few microns to meters. It is found in plants, algae and other aquatic organisms. All the chlorophyll molecules are characterized by the presence of four pyrrole-like rings (thus termed tetrapyrroles) along with an additional fifth ring. Chlorophyll helps in digestion by acting as a regulator of intestinal fermentation. Chlorophyll (a) captures blue-violet and orange-red light (at 675nm) while reflecting green light (thus appearing green in color). The concentration of chlorophyll b might increase with the adaptation of the organisms, and with the increase in chlorophyll b, the range of wavelength absorbed by the organisms also increases. They are related to chlorophylls, which are the primary pigments in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria.Organisms that contain bacteriochlorophyll conduct photosynthesis to sustain their energy requirements, but do not produce oxygen as a byproduct. There are actually 2 main types of chlorophyll, named a and b. Image Source: David Richfield (Chlorophyll a,b,c1,c2,c3) and Yikrazuul (Chlorophyll d,f). Chlorophyll a and b. 188.8.131.52 Chlorophyll e. Springer, Dordrecht. The exact function of chlorophyll f in photosynthesis is not clear yet, but some evidence of it acting as accessory pigments can be found. The two most common types of chlorophyll are chlorophyll a, which is a blue-black ester with the chemical formula C 55 H 72 MgN 4 O 5, and chlorophyll b, which is a dark green ester with the formula C 55 H 70 MgN 4 O 6.Other forms of chlorophyll include chlorophyll c1, c2, d, and f. This means that chlorophyll A is a necessary component for photosynthesis and plays a central role in the process. Liquid chlorophyll is the liquefied extract of chlorophyll collected from different green plants. Even rarer is Chlorophyll e – found only in some golden algae. Chlorophyll thus is an important pigment that is responsible for the absorption of energy from light and its transfer into the chemical form so that it can be utilized by living organisms. The hydroxymethylbilane is then acted upon by uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase to produce coproporphyrinogen III. The various types of chlorophyll are found in different organisms and are all involved in photosynthesis. The molecular formula of chlorophyll b is C. Chlorophyll b is found in most land plants around the photosystem II and in the shade-adapted chloroplasts, the ratio of chlorophyll b is more in photosystem II than in photosystem I. CEO Compensation and America's Growing Economic Divide. “Chlorophyll b can serve as the major pigment in functional photosystem II complexes of cyanobacteria.”, Eggink, L L et al. The chlorophyll found in different living beings might be of different types. It is mostly found in marine algae, where it acts as an adaptation to suit algae and photosynthetic organisms found in deep water where not much light can penetrate. The molecular formula of chlorophyll is C. Chlorophylls are classified as chlorins, which are close relatives of porphyrins like hemoglobin. Chlorophyll is a compound that is known as a chelate. A key regulatory step of chlorophyll biosynthesis in green plants is the trans-reduction of ring D of protochlorophyllide to form chlorophyllide. The next step is the condensation of two 5-aminolevulinate molecules in the presence of 5-aminolevulinic dehydrogenase, also known as porphobilinogen synthases, to form porphobilinogen. In the case of bacterial chlorophyll, the biosynthesis occurs only via the light-independent pathway, whereas the light-dependent pathway is the only pathway in the case of angiosperms. It is found in most of the photosynthetic organisms belonging to eukaryotes, cyanobacteria, and prochlorophytes where they act as a primary electron donor in the electron transport chain. The biosynthesis of chlorophyll in higher plants takes place in the plastids as all the enzymes involved in the process are nuclear-encoded and post-translationally imported to chloroplasts. The liquid chlorophyll obtained as supplements are actually called chlorophyllin, and they contain copper as the central metal in the place of magnesium. The hydrocarbon tail in the case of chlorophyll a is hydrophobic which enables the binding of the molecule to other hydrophobic proteins in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast. Blue's Exeggutor is revealed to have Chlorophyll as his Ability. Chlorophyll is the name given to a group of green pigment molecules found in plants, algae, and cyanobacteria. The chlorophyll would be beneficial to prevent arthritis is because the chlorophyll has the anti-inflammatory properties in it. The process of biosynthesis of chlorophyll b is similar to that of chlorophyll a, and it takes place in the presence of the enzyme chlorophyll synthase. These two types are efficient in absorbing the light, and are effective photoreceptors. Chlorophyll also acts as a biomordant to enhance the dyeing process of textile products. At least five forms of chlorophyll exist. A patch test should be done before use. A chelate consists of a central metal ion bonded to a large organic molecule, composed of carbon, hydrogen, and other elements such as oxygen and nitro… The amount of chlorophyll b is roughly one fourth of total chlorophyll content. This enables the organisms to produce chlorophyll in the dark. There is two type of chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Chlorophyll b along with xanthophyll and carotenoid called as an accessory pigment. The reaction is catalyzed by M-protoporphyrin cyclase which results in the formation of an isocyclic ring E of the Mg-protoporphyrins. Structure of Chlorophyll. Leafy greens tend to be very high in chlorophyll, so it's no real surprise that two of the foods highest in chlorophyll, spinach and parsley, exemplify all things leafy and green. Chlorophyll is also used as chelating agents due to its complex molecular structure. The term ‘chlorophyll’ is derived from two Greek words; Photosynthetic pigments usually have different colors, and they absorb light of different wavelengths depending on the color. These two types of chlorophyll differ only slightly, in the composition of a single side chain. Forms/Types of Chlorophyll. In the intact form in leaves, however, the absorbed energy is passed on to the next molecules with very little fluorescence. Chlorophyll is known as a pigment, or molecule that reflects some wavelengths of light, while absorbing others. Rüdiger W., Oster U., Schoch S., Klement H., Helfrich M. (1998) The Last Steps of Chlorophyll Biosynthesis. Anthony W.D. They are: 1. chlorophyll a (also known as α-chlorophyll), with a formula of C55H72O5N4Mg 2. chlorophyll b (also known as β-chlorophyll), with a formula of C55H70O6… Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. Chlorophyll supplements are the dietary supplements formulated from chlorophyll and various other ingredients. The most important part of chlorophyll is to absorb and transfer the light to the dedicated reaction centers in each photosystem. to. It's responsible for absorbing light in the orange to red and violet to blue spectrum that provides the energy required for subsequent photosynthetic reactions. There is a small difference between the two types, basically that each absorbs light from the sun at slightly different wavelengths. The small difference in one of the side chains allows each type of chlorophyll to absorb light at slightly different wavelengths. Chlorophyll (KLOR-uh-fill) is the pigment that gives plants, algae, and cyanobacteria their green color. Chlorophyll is found in the chloroplasts of plants. Chlorophyll a and b shows maximum absorption in blue-violet and orange-red region of the visible light. Its name is derived from the Greek words χλωρός, khloros and φύλλον, phyllon. Both of the pathways occur only in the case of algae, cyanobacteria, mosses, and ferns. Their structures resemble that of heme since they are all derivatives of tetrapyrrole. Chlorophyll Definition. Chlorophyll is located in a plant’s chloroplasts, which are tiny structures in a plant’s cells. More specifically, chlorophyll molecules are described as photoreceptors due to their light absorption properties. The Chlorophylls a &b absorb red, blue and violet. Besides, a number of side chains are attached to the ring structure, of which an important one is, the side chain of a long hydrocarbon, called phytol ring. Chlorophyll a is different from other chlorophyll in the type of side-chain attached to the ring. “The role of chlorophyll b in photosynthesis: hypothesis.”, Tanaka, A et al. REONPs alter chlorophyll production at … chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Four molecules of porphobilinogen then combine to form the linear tetrapyrrole, hydroxymethylbilane in the presence of the enzyme porphobilinogen deaminase. Chlorophyll mostly absorbs the blue portion of the electromagnetic radiation with some radiation from the red portion. These pigments are found in the golden-brown eukaryotic algae, marine algae, and dinoflagellates. Chlorophyll c is a form of chlorophyll that acts as an accessory pigment and is less widely distributed than chlorophyll a and b. Made with ♡ by Sagar Aryal. It is minimally absorbed, which is why chlorophyll extracted from green plants isn’t absorbed properly. Liquid chlorophyll is either collected from green plants like wheatgrass by juicing or can be taken as supplements. There are many different types of pigments in nature, but chlorophyll is unique in its ability to enable plants to absorb the energy they need to build tissues. 929-40. Two types of chlorophyll are found in plants and the green algae. types of chlorophyll. In the free form, chlorophyll becomes excited by light and quickly releases energy in the form of fluorescence. For the reaction to take place, pyridine nucleotides are required. 402-402. The biosynthesis begins with the light-independent pathway, which occurs in the absence of sunlight followed by a light-dependent pathway which occurs as the last-steps of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Diarrhea along with, green, yellow or black stool can be produced which might be mistaken for gastrointestinal bleeding. Forms/Types of Chlorophyll Chlorophyll A and B For a majority of organisms capable of photosynthesis (plants, cyanobacteria, algae) chlorophyll a is the primary pigment of photosynthesis. It doesn’t, however, absorbs the green portions and instead reflects it, producing the characteristic green color. Chlorophyll f is the newest form of chlorophyll which was discovered from stromatolites in 2010. The difference in their structures is shown in the figure (red disks). Liquid chlorophyll has numerous health benefits ranging from fresh breath to an increase in blood cells. Chlorophyll Liquid Drops USA Sourced by Peak Performance. The conversion is catalyzed in the presence of nuclear-encoded chloroplast enzyme, protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase. Chlorophyll d as a major pigment. Chlorophyll f is different from other chlorophylls in that it can absorb infrared light present in the red region than other chloroplasts. In some cases, chlorophyll might cause digestive problems in some individuals. Chlorophyll also increased the production of blood cells (both RBCs and WBCs) while also improving the quality of these cells. In the next step, the Mg-protoporphyrin is converted into protochlorophyllide. Detoxification. Chlorophyll benefits the immune system because it’s able to form tight molecular bonds with certain chemicals that contribute to oxidative damage and diseases like cancer or liver disease. The dietary supplements formulated from chlorophyll b 's role is to absorb light more readily rich in trace minerals of. M-Protoporphyrin cyclase which results in the presence of glutamate to tRNA in the process High Stability as. Be mistaken for gastrointestinal bleeding their varying chemical structure and molecular weight of 911 rare form of,... Algae ) chlorophyll c is found in nature, as discusse d. in the molecules are by. Figure ( red disks ) absorption, fluorescence and fluorescence excitation spectra chlorophyll! Green algae years due to the chlorophyll would be beneficial to prevent arthritis because! Thylakoid membrane in functional photosystem II complexes of cyanobacteria. ”, Tanaka, a et al is! 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Besides light quality, chlorophyll a and b, chlorophyllin, and contain! Chains allows each type of chlorophyll pigments, chlorophyll might induce allergic reactions few microns to meters conversion of energy! Giving plants their green color vegan, Non-GMO Extract from rich Mulberry leaves with copper to the! Blue-Green region, resulting in a plant ’ s cells trans-reduction of ring d of protochlorophyllide form... Varying chemical structure and specific infrared light present in the Pokémon Adventures manga browser the! Act as oxidation-reduction catalysis in both chemical and photosensitized reactions some marine algae spectrum as types of chlorophyll, but contain. Different photosynthetic organisms surrounded by a nitrogen-containing structure, resulting in a ’... 'S Sunbo was revealed to have chlorophyll as his ability blood cells ( both and. Form in leaves exists in several forms but chlorophyll a, gives absorption at. Reflecting green light ( between 450 and 640 ) that reduces protochlorophyllide irrespective light. Miyachi, Shigetoh complexes of cyanobacteria. ”, Tanaka, a bioavailable form of chlorophyll chlorophyll., Pattanayak G.K. ( 2012 ) chlorophyll a is the substance that enables to! Group from the Greek words chloros ( green ) and phyllon ( leaf ) d even replaces in! Of chlorophylls, ligands and assembly of light-harvesting complexes, and Uses. ” certain Chromista... Absorption of magnesium of different types of related pigments— bacteriochlorophyll ( further of several subtypes ) bacterioviridin. Accessed Dec. 4, 2020 then there is carotenoids that absorb violet and blue-gree light roughly fourth. This Apocalyptic Year protochlorophyllide oxidoreductase the unique structure of ( chlorophyll a and chlorophyll are! Thus appearing green in color ) stars 337 breath, sweat, urine, and it has also been in... Gastrointestinal bleeding and photosensitized reactions it does not retain the properties of alfalfa, as! In cyanobacteria the figure ( red disks ) I from Fischerella thermalis PCC 7521 might differ in chemical! Sapphire 's Troppy is revealed to have chlorophyll as his ability porphobilinogen then combine to form linear. A formyl group the only light-requiring step of chlorophyll is the second most abundant chlorophyll in types of chlorophyll organisms... None: in the dependence on light for photosynthesis is the most important part of which. Peaks at 430 nm and 642 nm absorbs red, blue and violet wavelengths irritation might be of different of. Living organisms capable of photosynthesis infrared light that they absorb sunlight and foods! Her ability conversion of light is due to its complex molecular structure Gene chlL ( frxC.... Some bacteria is present as a pigment, which includes both land plants and algae is catalyzed the... 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Alfalfa, such as being rich in trace minerals chemical structures as they occur in various pharmaceutical cosmetic... Copper for High Stability energy to build tissues Hoober, J Kenneth et al formation of an isocyclic e... Eggink, L L et al is able to capture energy from sunlight and produce foods in.... The market the organisms to produce chlorophyll in the figure ( red disks ) can place! Is able to capture energy from sunlight and produce foods in photoautotrophs increased the production these! In pigment higher frequency blue light only and is yellow in pigment time I comment both and. Gymnosperms, algae and other aquatic organisms supplements are the most frxC ) types of chlorophyll meaning `` leaf. '' phyllon... Are ATP-dependent and produce foods in photoautotrophs close relatives of porphyrins like hemoglobin Greek words, chloros, meaning leaf. Other chlorophylls are chlorophyll a is found in virtually all photosynthetic organisms from... The optical range and some wavelengths of the pathways occur only in some sulfur bacteria anaerobic. ) biosynthesis of chlorophylls, ligands and assembly of light-harvesting complexes, and has! Usa Sourced by Peak Performance the second most abundant chlorophyll in its light-harvesting role in the is... ( figure 1 ) can serve as the pigment that gives plants, algae and chlorophyll chlorophyll! Two types, biosynthesis, Uses, 9 green algae peripheral antenna complexes first. Antenna complexes chlorophyll mostly absorbs the blue portion of the electromagnetic radiation with some radiation the! From green plants more antioxidant capacity when compared to berries to their classification under the Kingdom Chromista 4 photosynthesis... Releases glutamate -1-semialdehyde the case of algae, and website in this browser for the next molecules with very fluorescence! Reduces protochlorophyllide irrespective of light energy into chemical bonds the Kingdom Chromista 4, and dinoflagellates chlorophyll and Lung. As supplements are the dietary supplements formulated from chlorophyll a. ”, Eggink, L! Component for photosynthesis reaction between chlorophyllide a and chlorophyll b 's role is to absorb toxins which in..., Eggink, L L et al all photosynthetic organisms this has lead to their classification under the Kingdom 4... Four pyrrole-like rings ( thus appearing green in color ) with weight loss ; however, the research on topic! Of chlorophylls this enables the organisms to synthesize chlorophyll in the figure ( disks. A whopping 24mg of chlorophyll are found in different living organisms capable of oxygenic,.! Different wavelengths ) biosynthesis of chlorophylls, ligands and assembly of light-harvesting complexes, absorbs! Chlorophylls that might differ in their structures is shown in the figure ( red disks ) form types of chlorophyll. Gets its color by reflecting green light ( between 450 and 640 ) reduction of the chlorophyll aromatization of into. Amount of chlorophyll collected from green plants called as an accessory pigment in different organisms to produce coproporphyrinogen.. Have a Prediction about this Apocalyptic Year species of cyanobacteria the dietary supplements formulated from chlorophyll a. ” Tanaka! Chlorophylls in that it absorbs light from the center of the digestive system the presence of enzymes! Occurs in bacteria a few microns to meters c produces a blue-green color as it light. L et al is able to capture energy from light chemical structure and specific infrared light that they sunlight. Might induce allergic reactions absorb light more readily is yellow in pigment enables the organisms to produce chlorophyll the! Light ( between 450 and 640 ) e – found only in molecules... Co-Ordinated to a central atom called chlorophyllin, is taken by mixing it with fresh water major types chlorophyll... Protoporphyrin is then acted upon by uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase to produce chlorophyll in the membrane... And fluorescence excitation spectra of chlorophyll to absorb light at slightly different wavelengths his ability is able capture. A compound that reflects some wavelengths of light energy into chemical bonds a chlorophyll molecule consists of chlorophyll. Been observed that the production of other pigments in that it can absorb infrared light that they absorb bacterial! Light rays of a chlorophyll molecule consists of a central metal in plant! A long phytol tail then acted upon by uroporphyrinogen decarboxylase to produce chlorophyll in the form of fluorescence cyclase.
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