10 Top Facts about The Oregon Trail For the migration to the western side of the U.S., the Oregon Trail was a crucial route between 1841 and 1869. The water was ten inches up the waggeon beds in the deep plaices. The prairie schooners crossed the Big Blue, a tributary of the Kansas River, about two weeks out of Independence. That changed in 1836, when newlywed missionaries Marcus and Narcissa Whitman took a small party of wagons from St. Louis to the Walla Walla Valley to minister to Cayuse Indians. 1-5 Oregon Trail Facts 1. The first miles were a hubbub. The more pressing threats were cholera and other diseases, which were responsible for the vast majority of the estimated 20,000 deaths that occurred along the Oregon Trail. For instance, you may have never heard these 12 unusual facts … By May 13, 1843, more than 900 emigrants bound for Oregon were encamped on the prairie at Fitzhugh’s Mill, several miles from Independence, preparing to embark, dividing into companies, electing wagon masters and engaging veteran and self-proclaimed frontiersmen who professed to know the country to guide them. Our line of historical magazines includes America's Civil War, American History, Aviation History, Civil War Times, Military History, MHQ: The Quarterly Journal of Military History, Vietnam, Wild West and World War II. The trail terminated in Oregon's Williamette Valley. But youth was not to be denied, the trek was a great adventure, and life stretched far ahead. Fort Laramie in Wyoming eventually became known as “Camp Sacrifice” for its reputation as an Oregon Trail dumping ground. But the real thrust westward came the following year, when the Oregon Trail took on a new significance thanks to the so-called Great Emigration. The Hudson’s Bay Company agents at Fort Hall encouraged the emigrants to take the California route. The trail ran from Independence, Missouri , to what is now northern Oregon , near the Columbia River. “As I looked about me I felt that the grass was the country, as the water is the sea,” wrote novelist Willa Cather in My Antonia. The heavier the wagon, the more likely it would bog down in mud or cause the team to break down. Crowds gathered to mark his arrival in major cities, and he eventually piloted his wagon all the way to Washington, D.C. for a meeting with President Theodore Roosevelt. The children of Oregon Trail pioneers were engaged in eastward migration. The other boat was swept to the bottom by a whirlpool. However, the most frequent epitaph was, “Died: Of Cholera.” Because there was no wood for coffins, bodies were wrapped in cloths and buried under mounds of earth and rocks. He was given a fair trial and, if found guilty, was sentenced according to the nature of his offense. Indians were more likely to be allies and trading partners than adversaries, and many early wagon trains made use of Pawnee and Shoshone trail guides. Among the travelers was Jesse Applegate’s young nephew and namesake. Peter Burnett was chosen captain, and a so-called cow column for slower wagons and herds of livestock was formed with Jesse Applegate as its leader. Photo by Randy Wagner, used with thanks. While pioneer trains did circle their wagons at night, it was mostly to keep their draft animals from wandering off, not protect against an ambush. Cholera and dysentery were common killers on the Oregon Trail. As the two boats approached a river bend, young Jesse heard “the sound of rapids, and presently the boat began to rise and fall and rock from side to side….I could see breakers ahead extending in broken lines across the river, and the boat began to sweep along at a rapid rate.”. Precluded by high land prices or multiple heirs in large families from owning farms in western Oregon, they took surplus livestock and headed over the Cascades to the lush meadows along the margins of the region's streams and lakes. Even today, ruts from the wagon wheels remain etched indelibly in the fragile topsoil of the Western landscape. “The brave old soldier could have saved himself by abandoning the boy,” wrote Jesse, “but this he would not do.” The other person who had been on the skiff that capsized, Jesse’s brother Warren, also drowned. By the time the 1843 party started the river run they had been on the trail nearly five months. They came from all directions, by steamboat and over primitive roads that a day or two of heavy rain turned into quagmires. In the middle years of the 1800s many thousands of U.S. pioneers traveled west on the Oregon Trail. In 1844, there were 1,475 Oregon-bound emigrants; in 1845, 2,500 emigrants. Crossing the Blue Mountains in 1843 was particularly slow-going for the Oregon emigrants because of the forests and poor weather. For more great articles be sure to subscribe to Wild West magazine today! Conestoga wagons, which weighed one-and-a-half tons tons empty, were too heavy for travel where there were no roads. Between 1841 and 1869, hundreds of thousands of people traveled westward on the trail. In the spring of 1843, the first ripple of a coming tide of would-be settlers piled everything they owned into canvas-covered wagons, handcarts and any other vehicle that could move, and set out along a dim trace called the “Emigrant Road.” They went by way of a route that was a broad ribbon of threads, sometimes intertwining, sometimes splitting off into frayed digressions. Wagons, cattle and horses had to be left behind. These shortcuts were especially popular in Wyoming, where the network of alternative pathways meandered more than a hundred miles north and south. In 1842, Dr. Elijah White, the newly appointed Indian agent in Oregon, successfully led 125 men, women and children there. The U.S. government made the new land seem even more appealing by offering Oregon settlers a square mile of land for almost nothing. Buffalo were so plentiful that one traveler wrote, “Some are grazing quietly and others are marching, moving and bellowing, and the great herds making a roaring noise as they trample along.” Cows would sometimes stray off with a buffalo herd, and the buffalo could befoul a stream. Ill-broken oxen and reluctant mules either bolted or sulked in harness, entangled themselves in picket ropes or escaped entirely and sped back to the starting point. As the years passed, enterprising settlers also blazed dozens of new trails, or cutoffs, that allowed travelers to bypass stopping points and reach their destination quicker. Facts of the Oregon Trail With the Louisiana Purchase in 1803, America nearly doubled in size, extending the country’s western border from the Mississippi River … They were able to negotiate the other rapids without mishap. Fires were dimmed at an early hour, and everyone retired to rest for tomorrow’s march. In addition to Independence Rock, pioneers also left behind signatures on Register Cliff and Names Hill, two other sites in Wyoming. “Our party ate large quantities of this fruit. They were adept with wagons, livestock, rifles and axes. Contrary to the depictions of dime novels and Hollywood Westerns, attacks by the Plains Indians were not the greatest hazard faced by westbound settlers. “The migration of a large body of men, women and children across the continent to Oregon was, in the year 1843, strictly an experiment,” Jesse Applegate, the leader of the cow column, wrote. Oregon Trail The Oregon Trail was a 2,000-mile route running overland across the North American continent from the Missouri River in the East to the Columbia River in the Pacific Northwest. The rims and spokes would still sometimes crack and split, of course, and in the dry air of the Great Plains, they were also likely to shrink, which eventually caused the iron tires to slip off. (Rodney Bryant and Daniel Woolfolk/Military Times)... Homepage Featured Top Stories, Homepage Hero. In 1841, Father Pierre DeSmet, a Jesuit missionary, had spotted some names carved there by fur traders and called it “The Great Record of the Desert.”. One vigorous fellow took 10,040 steps to walk around its base. The Oregon Trail puts you in charge … Boys and young men on horseback kept the loose stock from straying too far, as they trailed along behind the wagons. Oxen were turned loose with their yokes on, so they might graze and rest. Metal parts were kept to a minimum because of the weight, but the tires were made of iron to hold the wheels together and to protect the wooden rims. Sore-footed oxen were thrown onto their backs in trenches and shod while their hooves waved helplessly. The Applegate train used Independence, preeminent since 1827 as an outfitting center. The Oregon Trail was part of the idea of Manifest Destiny because of the fact that Manifest Destiny was the idea that America should expand into the Western Territory. The California Trail was eventually traveled by some 250,000 settlers, most of them prospectors seeking to strike it rich in the gold fields. This article was written by Bob Brooke and originally appeared in the April 2000 issue of Wild West. Many of these restless souls had heard of the success of Joe Meek and his friend Bob Newell, who had made it to Oregon in 1840. The Cascades still lay between the emigrants and their destination, the Willamette Valley. As traffic on the Oregon Trail increased, a bustling industry of frontier trading posts sprang up to supply food and equipment for the five-month haul. American Oregon Trail pioneer and writer Ezra Meeker. Ignorance allowed travelers to advance where fuller knowledge might have rooted them with apprehension. It was co-authored by Beau Wise and Tom Sileo, who also... Homepage Featured Top Stories, Homepage Hero, Mag: Military History Featured, Military History, Military History Magazine. McCall wrote of his fellow travelers, “They laid in an over-supply of bacon, flour and beans, and in addition thereto every conceivable jimcrack and useless article that the wildest fancy could devise or human ingenuity could invent—pins and needles, brooms and brushes, ox shoes and horse shoes, lasts and leather, glass beads and hawk-bells, jumping jacks and jews-harps, rings and bracelets, pocket mirrors and pocket books, calico vests and boiled shirts.” A passerby was reminded of birds building a nest while watching one family load its wagon. All Rights Reserved. Guard duty commenced at eight o’clock at night and continued until four o’clock in the morning. “You Have Died of Dysentery” was a … The trip made him a national celebrity. The Oregon Trail monument at South Pass was erected in 1906 by early trail booster Ezra Meeker. The overloading meant that many sections of trail became junk heaps filled with discarded food barrels and wagon parts. The train included nearly 1,000 persons of both sexes, more than 200 wagons, 700 oxen and nearly 800 loose cattle. The fort served as a supply point along the Oregon Trail until 1854, when it was abandoned due to flooding and Indian attacks. Usually their sleep was undisturbed save perhaps by the sharp yelp of a coyote on a nearby hill, and the challenging bark of the camp dogs. Applegate would later provide descriptions of life on the Oregon Trail in his memoir, A Day with the Cow Column in 1843. Most emigrants, including Captain Burnett, swore by oxen. To keep the animals moving, it often became necessary to lighten their loads. That wasn’t so surprising because, as Hiram Crittenden remembered, “the Trail was strewn with abandoned property, the skeletons of horses and oxen, and with freshly made mounds and headboards that told a pitiful tale.”. A bone-wrenching weariness would set in as the miseries mounted. All through the afternoon the oxen plodded, and when the wagons arrived at the spot chosen by the guide as a camping place, preparations were made to spend the night. Travelers would chop out big chunks for their water casks, and some even made ice cream. The book “Three Wise Men,” tells the story of the three Wise brothers, Beau, Ben and Jeremy, and a wider story of the repeated sacrifice of post-9/11 veterans and their families. “They were black and near the size of buckshot with a single seed, very sweet and otherwise pleasant to the taste…” he later wrote. On this barren 50-mile stretch, there was no water available until the Green River, on the far western side. Such slowdowns would often throw off the schedule and sometimes cause major problems down the road. The next year, John Bidwell and John Bartleson traveled what would later be christened the Oregon Trail on the first planned overland emigration west to California. We carried as many as fifteen waggeons at one time. In the stark, arid land west of the Humboldt River, more than one traveler was “obliged to swallow dust all day in place of water,” as one woman put it. Technically, the Trail wound from Independence, Mo., to Oregon City. Many a troth was plighted at the impromptu gatherings along the trail, beside a dim campfire. Dr. Whitman’s first practical counsel was: “Keep traveling! Register Cliff, near present Guernsey, Wyo., is one of three large “registers of the desert” in Wyoming where Oregon-, California- and Utah-bound emigrants carved their names on rock. Later, though, the recollections become more somber. Planning a Trail Visit. With prairie stretching seemingly … The trail then swung up into Nebraska, where it ran along the south bank of the Platte River. His final crossing came at age 94, when he made the trip in a biplane flown by famed pilot Oakley Kelly. Dan Bullock died at age 15 in 1969 and efforts to recognize the young African-American Marine continue and are highlighted in this Military Times documentary. It is estimated that prior to the 1849 California gold rush, only 34 whites and 25 Indians were killed in fighting on the Oregon Trail. These met along the lower part of Plate River Valley which was located near Fort Kearny. ... Get inside articles from the world's premier publisher of history magazines. One of the most notable prairie guest books was Independence Rock, a 128-foot-tall granite outcropping in Wyoming dubbed “The Register of the Desert.” Thousands of travelers left their mark on the rock while camping along the nearby Sweetwater River. “The men returned to the oars just in time to avoid, by great exertion, a rock against which the current dashed with such fury that the foam and froth upon its apex was as white as milk,” Jesse later wrote. It started in Independence, Missouri and traveled a cleared trail that reached to Fort Hall, Idaho. The snow-crested Laramie Mountains rose in the distance. Mountain man John Gant was to be chief guide as far as Fort Hall. This road to the Far West soon became known by another name—the Oregon Trail. In 1843, the trickle of emigrants into Independence, Missouri, began to swell. It was about 2,000 miles (3,200 kilometers) long. The weight of hardship piled on hardship was enough, on occasion, to make men and women break down and cry, and perhaps even turn back. The Great Emigration of 1843 had begun. Meeker went on to journey the Oregon Trail several more times by wagon, train and automobile. It was told for a fact in camp that a woman died during the night we stayed there from the effects of a gorge of black haws. A map showing the westward trail from Missouri to Oregon. It crossed varied and often difficult terrain that included large territories occupied by Native Americans. The thunderstorms of eastern Kansas, wrote one traveler, “rolled the whole circle of the firmament with a peculiar and awful vibration.” Another diarist reported a gale that covered the ground with a foot of water, drove rain through the wagon covers “like as though they had been paper,” and scattered cattle “to the ends of the earth.”. Perhaps hunters came in with choice parts of buffalo or antelope, and everyone enjoyed a feast. The area close to Register Cliff was the first night’s camp west of Fort Laramie. The sick lay on pallets in the hot, debilitating confines of their wagons with only the wagon cover to protect them from the direct rays of the sun. The wagon wheels were taken off, and the wagon bodies, by then long bereft of their caulking, were covered with buffalo skins to waterproof them. Read More. Between 1841 and 1866 about 350,000 people used what had become the most famous wagon route across America. Work was done to clear more and more of the trail stretching farther West and it eventually reached Willamette Valley, Oregon. “The ox is the most noble animal, patient, thrifty, durable, and gentle,” he said. Fifty-five miles beyond Soda Springs, at Fort Hall, another supply depot operated by the Hudson’s Bay Company, the wagon trains split up, one part going to California and the other to Oregon. The flat Platte River valley had been left behind. Out on the plains in the middle of May, the grass was luxuriant and the wildflowers out in force. Frames of hickory bows supported the cloth tops, which protected pioneers from rain and sun. Where the cutoff rejoined the main trail, the travelers headed northwest. Oregon-bound travelers were advised to keep their wagons weighing less than one-and-a-half tons fully loaded. Once the wagons were loaded, the animals gathered and the emigrants reasonably organized, Captain Peter Burnett finally gave the signal for the Applegates and the others to move out. Online Photo Tour of the Oregon Trail from Independence Rock. The unusual odyssey began in 1906, when the 76-year-old jumped behind the reigns of a covered wagon and retraced the steps of his original pioneer journey from 54 years before. A path lost in time when the magic and mystery of earthbound exploration was on its last legs, when the wild unknown was becoming less wild and more known. Four more weeks of travel, no less challenging for being on water, still remained. An easier trail was needed. “They plod.”. These trail facts may be downloaded for personal reading convenience or to be used in the classroom. Along with painting messages and mottos on their wagon canvasses, pioneers also developed a tradition of carving their names, hometowns and dates of passage on some of the stone landmarks they encountered during their journey west. The presence of ice in midsummer indicated that they had reached the highest point on the trail—the Continental Divide at South Pass. “They were so noisy that I suspected they had liquor mixed with the water.”. While most Oregon-bound emigrants traveled a route that passed by landmarks in Missouri, Kansas, Nebraska, Wyoming, Idaho and Oregon, there was never just one set of wagon ruts leading west. Still, for the most part, the travelers had it relatively easy during the first few weeks on the trail as they headed northwest toward Nebraska and the Platte River. After traversing a 22-mile tableland, the emigrants had to lower their wagons down a dangerously steep drop to what seemed an oasis to them—Ash Hollow, a woodsy glen that provided sweet spring water and shade. When the first railroad was completed, allowing faster and more convenient travel, use of the trail quickly declined. Oregon Trail, in U.S. history, an overland trail between Independence, Missouri, and Oregon City, near present-day Portland, Oregon, in the Willamette River valley. Meek and Newell managed to get the first wheeled vehicles over the Blue Mountains. Still, it wasn’t until 1843 that the pioneer dam finally burst. The original game was designed to teach school children about the realities of 19th century pioneer life on the Oregon Trail. Most pioneers instead tackled the trail in more diminutive wagons that become known as “prairie schooners” for the way their canvas covers resembled a ship’s sail. Others mixed it with sugar and citrus syrup to make lemonade. Rumors abounded about the wonders of the west. Many of them traveled in large wagon trains using covered wagons to carry their belongings. The Oregon trail was 2,000 miles long, with branches starting in Iowa and Missouri before they converged in Nebraska and traveled through Wyoming and Idaho. Space was so limited that, except in terrible weather, most travelers cooked, ate and slept outside. Jesse A. Applegate recalled: “The timber had to be cut and removed to make way for the wagons. Sometimes the officers of the train got together at noon to consider the case of someone who had violated the rules or had committed a crime. The many offshoots of the trail and the main trail itself were used by an estimated 350,000 settlers from the 1830s through 1869. 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