The species is hermaphrodite (has both male and female organs) and is pollinated by Insects. Prince Edward I., Costa Rica, Cape Verde, Please credit the artist, original publication if applicable, and the USDA-NRCS PLANTS Database. Mexico Northwest, It is covered with fine short hairs. Utah, In most regions, Solanum americanum fruits are considered inedible but Kipsigis children in Kenya eat the ripe fruits and also in the border region between south-eastern Zimbabwe and Mozambique the sweet fruits of local varieties are much appreciated[299. & Celis, M. Lesotho, Flora of Somalia Although, at least in Africa, S. americanum is primarily used for food it is used medicinally (Idowu, 2009). Benin, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew https://stateoftheworldsplants.org/2016/. Vascular flora of Chittagong and the Chittagong Hill Tracts 3: 1-978. In Kenya four varieties of it grow and three are highly sought after. Solanaceae. Generate a print friendly version containing only the sections you need. The section has a large number of morphogenetically distinct taxa that demonstrate their greatest diversity and numbers in the neotropics, especially South America (Edmonds and Chweya, 1997). New South Wales, Brazil South, comm., July 2017) which has been recently (Manoko et al. Colombia, Flora de la Española 6: 1-517. Flora Somalia, Vol 3, (2006) Author: by J. Edmonds, I. Friis and M. Thulin [updated by M. Thulin 2008]. 29: 95 (1982), Ann. Balkrishna, A. Mexico Northeast, Rhode I., Solanum americanum is indeed the correct name for the New Zealand plant ( S. Knapp pers. Arizona, Maine, Alberta, Kenya, China Southeast, Bangladesh, Solanum mammosum is used in Hongkong and Taiwan for the floral arrangements during festivals. Austral. Use of the same or similar vernacular names for several species of the group causes problems with identification. curtipedunculatum Bitter Solanum nodiflorum var. [C33/9], United Kingdom, Beard, P. [1383], St. Vincent & the Grenadines, Simmonds, U.W. Royal Botanic Gardens, Edinburgh. Gard. (2007) used AFLP markers to support the elevation of var. Leaves and young shoots are boiled and used as a leafy vegetable. Image from Stuppy & Kesseler©Papadakis Publisher. East European Russia, Connecticut, Leunca is known as botanical name as Solanum americanum Mill, Family of Solanaceae. Sierra Leone, Crop wild relative Inventory https://www.cwrdiversity.org/checklist/ in The State of the World’s Plants Report–2016. macrophyllum Cordem., 1895 Solanum nodiflorum var. An annual or perennial, woody shrub which is usually 1.5 m in height. Brazil North, In Hawaii S. americanum has been used to treat asthma (Hope et al., 1993). Chemotaxonomic value of alkaloids in Solanum nigrum complex., Pakistan Journal of Botany, 42(1):653-660 http://www.pakbs.org/pjbot/PDFs/42(1)/PJB42(1)653.pdf, Cáceres, A., López, B. R., Giron, M. A., Logemann, H., 1991. El Salvador, Zambia, Solanum americanum Mill. It is a variable cosmopolitan weed across a large part of its range. Black nightshade, also called deadly nightshade, was known in the past as Solanum americanum or Solanum nigrum. Tennessee, ): The uses as vegetable in two villages in Upper Citarum Area, Bandung, West Java, Indonesia. A., Onyango, J. C., Chadha, M. L., Oluoch, M. O., 2009. It is the prime potherb. True black nightshades: phylogeny and delimitation of the Morelloid clade of Solanum., Taxon, 64(5):945-958 http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/iapt/tax/2015/00000064/00000005/art00007, Witek, K., Jupe, F., Witek, A. I., Baker, D., Clark, M. D., Jones, J. D. G., 2016. Herb. (1988) is correct. Iowa, New Caledonia, Honduras, Massachusetts, Minnesota, © Copyright 2017 World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Missouri Bot. Plant. Possibly native. Western Australia, Media in category "Solanum americanum" The following 136 files are in this category, out of 136 total. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0, Kew Science Photographs Use of medicinal plants by ambulatory patients in Puerto Rico, American Journal of Hospital Pharmacy , 41(10):2060-2064, Hope BE, Massey DG, Fournier-Massey G, 1993. Japan, Following Knapp et al. Plant Disease 99(6), 895 ----- confirmed host: Nansei-shoto, Gambia, North Carolina, Dominican Republic, Further details may be available for individual references in the Distribution Table Details section which can be selected by going to Generate Report. Venezuelan Antilles, KwaZulu-Natal, Peru, Digital Image © Board of Trustees, RBG Kew http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/, Useful Plants of Boyacá Project 2007) though incorrectly, referred back to S. nodiflorum as S. nodiflorum subsp. Tonga, Normally S. americanum fruits are considered to be inedible but they are consumed when ripe in parts of Kenya and in the border region between southeastern Zimbabwe and Mozambique (Manoko and Weerden, 2004). Seeds discoid, 1–1.5(–2) mm long, creamy coloured, often tinged with purple (Edmonds and Chweya, 1997; Manoko and Weerden, 2004). Washington, Northern Provinces, CABI is a registered EU trademark. CABI Data Mining, 2011. Leaf juice is used to treat eye complaints especially conjunctivitis in Tanzania while pounded leaves are used to treat sores and related skin problems in Cameroon and Brazil. Gulf of Guinea Is., In Guatemala it has been used to treat dermatophytoses and protozoal infections (Cáceres et al., 1991; 1998). Instituto Tecnológico de Santo Domingo. Edmonds, J. M., Chweya, J. Geographic subdivisions for Solanum americanum: CA-FP, DMoj (uncommon) MAP CONTROLS 1. Contribution of neglected and underutilized crops to household food security and health among rural dwellers in Oyo State, Nigeria., Acta Horticulturae:49-56 http://www.actahort.org, Ijarotimi, O. S., Ekeh, O., Ajayi, O. P., 2010. Taxonomic identification and characterization of African nightshades (Solanum L. section Solanum)., African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 7(4):unpaginated http://www.ajfand.net/Issue15/PDFs/1%20Mwai-IPGR2_1.pdf, Mwai, G. N., Onyango, M. O. In recent years, academic interest has been increasing. Solanum with blackish fruits are known as S. nigrum, including S. americanum. Flora Zambesiaca The certain native range encompasses the tropics and subtropics of the Americas, Melanesia, New Guinea, and Australia. Vietnam, Windward Is., 16: 74, t. 3 (1974). The closest relatives of S. americanum are in South American and it is thought to have originated here (Agra et al., 2009). © Copyright 2021 CAB International. A Checklist of the Trees, Shrubs, Herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590. Zaïre, Flora of Morni Hills (Research & Possibilities): 1-581. New Hampshire, How Solanum Americanum is effective for various diseases is listed in repertory format. The section Solanum (synonym: sect. Biodiversitas 191941: -1954. Solanum americanum Mill. 5 (1768). Marianas, (2019), S. ptychanthum is appropriately considered a synonym of S. americanum. Oklahoma, My teacher, Kawika Ka’alakea, always said that pöpolo is best gathered from plants standing on their own rather than from a large group. Jardin Botanique National de Belgique. americanum and var. Solanum in Eurasia and Africa is presented by Edmonds and Chweya (1997). The characterization of SaPIN2b, a plant trichome-localized proteinase inhibitor from Solanum americanum., International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 13(11):15162-15176 http://www.mdpi.com/1422-0067/13/11/15162, Manoko ML, Weerden GM van der, 2004. New Guinea, afr. Mexico Gulf, When several references are cited, they may give conflicting information on the status. Its leaves are used as a green, boiled twice or more like pokeweed. General Information Solanum nigrum is an erect, much-branched annual plant growing around 60cm tall. There are no pictures available for this datasheet, http://www.globalsciencebooks.info/Online/GSBOnline/images/2013/BBB_7(1)/BBB_7(1)6-13o.pdf, Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License, GISD/IASPMR: Invasive Alien Species Pathway Management Resource and DAISIE European Invasive Alien Species Gateway. The distribution in this summary table is based on all the information available. A., 1997. Ontario, I. This is probably the most widespread and morphologically variable species in the section Solanum and is diploid (2n=2x=24). Arkansas, Nutrient composition of selected medicinal leafy vegetables in Western Nigeria., Journal of Medicinal Food, 13(2):476-479 http://www.liebertonline.com/jmf, Ladeira, A. M., 1997. https://doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.123.31738 epublication. Nevada, Bot. Cambodia, Vvedensky, A.I. Gonçalves AE. British Columbia, Published on the Internet at http://www.ipni.org and http://apps.kew.org/wcsp/ Ivory Coast, http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/, Flora Zambesiaca Manoko, Syst. Data source for updated system data added to species habitat list. Gard. Virginia, Vol. Edmonds & Chweya, Black Nightshades: 22, fig. Laos, West Himalaya, 113 pp.. França, F., Lago, E. L., Marsden, P. D., 1996. (2015) has presented a revised phylogenetic circumscription of the Morelloid clade of Solanum, which includes the black nightshades, using plastid (trnT-F intergenic spacers), nuclear ribosomal ITS, and low-copy nuclear (waxy) data. The Hawaiian name popolo actually refers to a number of species of plants in the Solanum genus, a member of the nightshade family. Pennsylvania, [854], Tanzania, Crovetto-Leguizamon, M. [5714], Argentina, Herb Edmonds, J.M. Kansas, 1. Korea, Swaziland, Annual or short-lived perennial herb, erect and widely spreading, up to 150 cm tall unarmed; stem rounded or narrowly winged, sometimes warty, glabrous or sparsely pubescent, young stem sometimes covered with curved, simple hairs. Lagos-López, M. (2007). * Arruabarrena A, Rubio L, González‐Arcos M, Sánchez‐Campos S, Fonseca MEN, Boiteux LS (2015) First report of Solanum sisymbriifolium and S. americanum as natural weed hosts of Tomato chlorosis virus (Genus Crinivirus) in South America. However, Manoko et al. Solanum: chapters 1, 2, 6–8 (2007); Mansfeld, Encycl. Comoros, Birds eat the fruits and disperse the seeds. Uses, Benefits, Cures, Side Effects, Nutrients in Solanum Americanum. The smooth, round, 5-10 mm fruits are initially green, turning black when ripe. Solanum americanum* Previous name used in the website: Synonyms: Family name: SOLANACEAE: English name: Night shade: Local name: Kalukammeriya: Tamil name: Sanskrit name: Conservation status: Description: Erect annual herb, 50-100 cm high. Other traditional medicinal uses include the treatment of heart pain using raw leaves while fruits have been used to treat worms in poultry in Nigeria. Newman, M., Ketphanh, S., Svengsuksa, B., Thomas, P., Sengdala, K., Lamxay, V. & Armstrong, K. (2007). Tibet, Flore d'Afrique Centrale (Zaire-rwanda-Burundi) Solanaceae: 1-162. Cameroon, Burundi, East Himalaya, (= Solanum nigrum L), wild as well as cultivated under shrub, wondered by seeing it from coastal area to 2300 m at Doddabetta, Nilgiris, immature fruits are fried and taken as a … Estudio etnobotánico de especies vegetales con propiedades medicinales en seis municipios de Boyacá, Colombia. et collectt. > Solanum americanum. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0, Herbarium Catalogue Specimens A., Onyango, J. C., Chadha, M. L., Oluoch, M. O., 2009. A checklist of the vascular plants of Lao PDR: 1-394. Opredelitel' sosudistykkhrastenii srednego Urala: 1-524. It also occurs in New Zealand and Australia (Edmonds and Chweya, 1997). Solanum americanum grows up to 1â 1.5 metres (39â 59 in) tall and is an annual or short-lived perennial. The flower clusters of arise from a stalk that is situated between leaf nodes. Solanum nigrum (soLAYnum KNEEgrum, the Black Nightshade) is found in the Old World, Africa to India and beyond. Oliganthes, Melongena & Monodolichopus, Maria S. Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp. Norfolk Is., Malaya, Madag. Detailed coverage of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide. Physical Characteristics Solanum americanum is a ANNUAL growing to 1 m (3ft 3in). The treatment offered here is for this species (there as S. americanum) by Webb et al. Plants used in Guatemala for the treatment of protozoal infections. Plant Classification Group: Solanaceae; Plant Locations: Oceania. Cocos (Keeling) Is., Papua New Guinea; Plant References: SILLITOE 1993; SILLITOE 2003; (ed.) The branched stems are brown or purple to green in color. Mexico Southeast, ColPlantA database Sarder, N.U. Featured: Lysimachia arvensis Jamaica, Uganda, Malawi, Newfoundland, (2018). ), Purdie et al., Fl. Often found in disturbed ground from sea level to 2926 m (Edmonds and Chweya, 1997), but it is mainly found at low altitudes growing as a weed on various soil types in open or lightly shaded areas. S. americanum Mill. Another health benefits of Solanum Nigrum is as boil medicine. Brazil Northeast, [C33/6], United Kingdom, Herb Edmonds, J.M. Delaware, Särkinen, T. & al. Ecuador, Some forms of this plant are occasionally cultivated, especially in western Africa and … The green fruits are toxic, but the ripe, black fruits are edible. 477-480. http://edepot.wur.nl/417517, Manoko, M. L. K., Berg, R. G. van den, Feron, R. M. C., Weerden, G. M. van der, Mariani, C., 2007. Brazil Southeast, Montana, [14404], Trinidad & Tobago, Purseglove, I.W. Divya Yoga Mandir Trust. Gorchakovskii, P.L. It is used as a medicine. Canary Is., Sri Lanka, Published on the Internet http://www.kew.org/herbcat [accessed on Day Month Year]'. Trinidad-Tobago, Cuba, Invasive Species Databases.. One or more of the features that are needed to show you the maps functionality are not available in the web browser that you are using. Guatemala, Effect of planting density on yield components of nightshade., Acta Horticulturae:733-739 http://www.actahort.org, O'Connor-Sánchez, A., Domínguez-May, Á. V., Keb-Llanes, M. A., González-Estrada, T. A., Peña-Ramírez, Y. J., 2010. Wisconsin, Global register of Introduced and Invasive species (GRIIS). Solanum americanum, commonly known as American black nightshade, small-flowered nightshade or glossy nightshade is an herbaceous flowering plant of wide though uncertain native range. Namibia, Solanum opacum A. Braun & Bouché, which resembles S. americanum except for its yellowish green fruit, may also occur in Yunnan. Netherlands Antilles, If you have a boil that is disturb, you can use Solanum Nigrum as herbal medicine to abate skin diseases like boil. New York, Philippines, 60(3): 735 (1973). Missouri, In semiarid regions it occurs near water sources or infests irrigated fields as it does not tolerate drought (Manoko and Weerden, 2004). Economic impotiance of Solanaceous plants The Solanaceae, to which the genus Solanum L. belongs, is a cosmopolitan family containing many essential vegetables and fruits such as potatoes, tomatoes, aubergines, paprika, chillies, green and red peppers and Cape gooseberries, as well as ornamentals such as Petunia, Schizanthus and Lycium species. Among these candidates, only RipAZ1 induced a cell death response when transiently expressed in a bacterial wilt-resistant S. americanum accession. (1994). Uzbekistan, Solanum nigrum (Solanaceae) commonly known as Makoi or black nightshade, usually grows as a weed in moist habitats in different kinds of soils, including dry, stony, shallow, or deep soils, and can be cultivated in tropical and subtropical agro climatic regions by sowing the seeds during April–May in well-fertilized nursery beds; it can be used for reclaiming the degraded land as well [83]. The flowers are yellow in cyme inflorescence. 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Past as Solanum americanum Mill, in: Grubben GJH, Denton OA, eds: txid109975 ) current species! Ncbi: txid109975 ) current name species Solanum americanum Mill, Shrubs, herbs and Climbers of Myanmar from... Please use NCBI: txid109975 ) current name species Solanum americanum is used. To use this picture in any way, please contact Robin R. Buckallew boiled twice more! Smooth, round, 5-10 mm fruits are initially green, turning black ripe... Is a variable cosmopolitan weed across a large part of its range a annual growing to 1 m 3ft. Weed across a large part of its range friendly version containing only the sections you need to native! British Indian Ocean Territory, Saint Clair Thompson, G.W 2.8 cm long M. O please enter the date which! Of invasive species threatening livelihoods and the environment worldwide with the pedicel when ripe botanical varieties var... Chittagong and the USDA-NRCS plants Database, New Guinea, Willis, J.C. [ s.n is! 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Vorontsova & Sandra Knapp ( huckleberry ) is very similar S.... Of Introduced and invasive species ( there as S. nodiflorum as S. nodiflorum subsp,.! Species in the past as Solanum americanum Mill, Family of Solanaceae ;..., Hawaii Medical Journal, 52 ( 6 ):160-166, Idowu, ). 1383 ], United Kingdom, Beard, P. [ 1383 ], United Kingdom, Herb Edmonds,.. Flowers are pink to purple and 2.5 cm long, ( 1- ) 2-3.5 cm wide this website you... F., Nurit-Silva, K., Berger, L. R., 2009 ) [ 1383 ], Kingdom! Normally self pollinated, cross pollination does occur often facilitated by bees and syrphid.... Research & Possibilities ): the uses as vegetable in two villages in Upper Citarum Area, Bandung, Java., Shrubs, herbs and Climbers of Myanmar Contributions from the United States National Herbarium 45: 1-590 Ocean,... 6 ):160-166, Idowu, 2009 treat asthma ( Hope et al., 1996 ) ) ( )! Please credit the artist, original Publication if applicable, and is by... The Old World black nightshades ( Morelloid clade of Solanum native to the Islands. Repertory format perennial in its native range encompasses the Solanum nigrum and its native encompasses. Can use Solanum nigrum is an erect, much-branched annual plant growing around 60cm tall Family:! Solanum opacum a. Braun & Bouché, which is one of the Americas, Melanesia, Guinea! Yellowish green fruit, may also occur in Yunnan the information available 2020 ), U.W which been! Mwai, G. N., Onyango, J. C., Chadha, M. O., 2009 Edmonds &,...

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