Local Governments. >> However, the same word is often used to describe different things. 1. endobj Many basic services are delivered by local municipalities and local ward councillors are the politicians closest to communities. Types of Government 7th Grade Social Studies Define the different types of governments (i.e., democracy, autocracy, oligarchy, monarchy, dictatorship, and so on). The four types of local governments are counties, townships, special districts and municipalities. They are counties, municipalities, (cities) town/ villages and districts (sometimes called... See full answer below. 1. %PDF-1.3 Functions of Local Government. 6 0 obj An understanding of how the state provides for local government, therefore, is important to understanding local government. Establishment of Markets. Find contact information for local governments by state. Urban Local government implies the governance of an urban area by the people through their elected representatives. The Extent and Nature of State and Local Government Pension Problems and a Solution Mark J. Warshawsky and Ross A. Marchand MERCATUS RESEARCH MERCATUS CENTER AT GEORGE MASON UNIVERSITY 3 T he According to Sidgwick “ the term local government in a unitary state means organs which, though completely subordinate to the central legislature, are independent of the central executive in … xœÎ½jBA„á>W1wpv¿Ï Local government is responsible for a range of vital services for people and businesses in defined areas. uuid:9fd4cb37-7366-4266-a844-777fd2896fe6 << /Name (Watermark) /Type /OCG /Usage << /Export << /ExportState /ON >> /PageElement << /Subtype /FG >> /Print << /PrintState /ON >> /View << /ViewState /ON >> >> >> Some are created by direct state action - through a charter, for example. *1 J�� "6DTpDQ��2(���C��"��Q��D�qp�Id�߼y�͛��~k����g�}ֺ ����LX ��X��ň��g`� l �p��B�F�|،l���� ��*�?�� ����Y"1 P������\�8=W�%�Oɘ�4M�0J�"Y�2V�s�,[|��e9�2��s��e���'�9���`���2�&c�tI�@�o�|N6 (��.�sSdl-c�(2�-�y �H�_��/X������Z.$��&\S�������M���07�#�1ؙY�r f��Yym�";�8980m-m�(�]����v�^��D���W~� ��e����mi ]�P����`/ ���u}q�|^R��,g+���\K�k)/����C_|�R����ax�8�t1C^7nfz�D����p�柇��u�$��/�ED˦L L��[���B�@�������ٹ����ЖX�! However, most are created because state statutes authorize citizens in a particular geographic area who need or desire local services to form a local unit of government. PDF | On Jan 1, 2007, Yonatan Fessha and others published Defining local government powers and functions | Find, read and cite all the research … Local governments perform two types of welfare functions / services namely Directs services to the public and in-direct services. In order to exercise that voice e˙ectively, it is important to understand how our government and o˙icials function at every level. x���wTS��Ͻ7�P����khRH �H�. The graph below shows the breakdown of local spending by categories of service for each type of local government – … E-Governance is of 4 types depending on the specific types of services. I use comparative analysis to test the theory's predictions with qualitative and … Local government structure Local Government Structure Local government in England operates under either a one tier system – unitary authorities, or a two tier system – county and district councils. Types of Decentralization. under 5000 people Government operations are those activities involved in the running of a . Start studying Types of local government. State, Local, and Tribal Governments Contact Elected Officials Governors Indian Tribes and Resources for Native Americans Local Governments State Attorneys … Under the constitution, the provinces have exclusive jurisdiction over municipal affairs ( see MUNICIPAL-PROVINCIAL RELATIONS ). Local government through local health boards inspect the quality of water supply and ensure that sewer facilities are well treated. Decentralization with its various types has been implemented in many countries, and the terms have been widely used. 3 0 obj E-governance is the network that includes government, public, and business organizations. Local Government, Structure and Organization ‡ 3A-3legislation, and similar provisions have been retained in the 1974 Constitution. Regional and local government have similar structures, set by the Namibian Constitution. as sovereign with respect to its local governments. Local Government Types and Services Many local governments work together to provide the public structures on which we depend. Standards of incorporation The U.K., Denmark, Kuwait, Spain, Sweden, Tuvalu, and many more are examples of constitutional monarchies. - … - THE CODE, POLICY AND APPLICATION SECTION 1. Local government in England operates under either a one tier system – unitary authorities, or a two tier system – county and district councils. Local government does not apply to such officials. uuid:c5d51d69-b9dd-4d97-8039-6d6769df17d9 �MFk����� t,:��.FW������8���c�1�L&���ӎ9�ƌa��X�:�� �r�bl1� city government with freedom to govern themselves as long as it does not go against state or federal laws. nOçeÙX6–CcÙKw­£u´ŽÖÑz¿ÖÑ:ZçÐÑF¿6ÐÚ@h£_hmph³_›hm¢M´yŸöS¶Éendstream In October 2012, the Department for Communities and Local Government commissioned Shared Intelligence and Grant Thornton UK LLP to conduct research into good practice in how local authorities are Government-to-Citizen(G2C) The Government-to-citizen refers New York State has a tradition of home rule authority and providing citizens with a strong voice in their local governments. The local government also established markets and ensures that these markets are maintained since they are source of revenue generation in the local government. ?���:��0�FB�x$ !���i@ڐ���H���[EE1PL���⢖�V�6��QP��>�U�(j law and provides basic services - pop. 4 Local government is the third tier of government in Australia and, in partnership with other levels of government, is responsible for aspects of everyday life that people care about deeply – from vibrant and safe public spaces, to 4. Local government is the sphere of government closest to the people. �@���R�t C���X��CP�%CBH@�R����f�[�(t� C��Qh�z#0 ��Z�l�`O8�����28.����p|�O×�X Transfers for education programs account for over two-thirds of state government transfers to loc… Different types of decentralization should be distinguished because they have different characteristics, policy implications, and conditions for success. b“ÒFBº`!äÒ$!šÂ»Ï‰/hA¶X†-¾™§©h©6ªÙüj•-çŸÉ[¨ºb¬ª¡Ì¦šZD>¬V?>ŽŠ¢aóþzÐËÜQôôWrŽJáDyŽ†çÓפa»›Z¯ÿÕÖkm.8‰F0fŒcƘ1fŒÙel»ÿžæj /Filter /FlateDecode The enforcement of Local Government Act 1976 established in essence only two types of local councils - one for municipality and one for rural area. 33 London boroughs 3. CHAPTER 3: THE ROLE AND FUNCTIONS OF GOVERNMENT . Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Local government is the third level of government deliberately created to bring government to the grass-roots population and gives the grass-roots population a sense of involvement in the political processes that control their daily lives. These governments are typically charged with enforcing state laws inside its boundaries. Specific types of imbalance map into specific forms of government failure. << /Type /ObjStm /Length 134 /Filter /FlateDecode /N 1 /First 4 >> Other types of monarchies include duchies, grand duchies, elective monarchy (where the monarch is actually elected), and non-sovereign monarchy. Through their constitutions or laws, all states establish mechanisms by which local governments are created. more local services, including council housing, local planning, recycling and refuse collection and leisure facilities. stream Additionally, one person's opinion of the type of government may differ from another's In other words…a country can have a mixture of economy and/or governments. /Length 2596 Mayors and executives Every council should have a mayor and an executive. The British system of local government, which has been the model for most of that country's former colonies, including the United States, is the most representative of the major types. endstream Alabama Alaska Arizona Arkansas California Colorado Connecticut Delaware District of … Certain major characteristics are defining of certain types; others are historically associated with certain types of government. endobj 3 types of local government. {{{;�}�#�tp�8_\. Although local government revenue was about the same relative to gross domestic product in 1977 (8.6 percent) and 2017 (8.7 percent), it has fluctuated over the period (figure 3). city government that functions under Tx. government to another, with the local unit accountable to the central government ministry or agency which has been decentralised. Structure The structure of local government varies from area to area. Depending on where you live, local government consists of at least one or two tiers of authorities. << /Type /ObjStm /Length 1777 /Filter /FlateDecode /N 40 /First 322 >> Local government - Local government - Characteristics of local government: The chief characteristics of local government, which may be studied by comparison of the United Kingdom, Germany, the U.S., and Russia, are (1) constitutional status, (2) areas and authorities, (3) powers, (4) finance and local freedom, (5) organization, and (6) central controls. If you continue browsing the site, you agree to the use of cookies on this website. The indirect functions consists of: Election to various bodies of the system; To provide legal advices to the locals regarding any aspect of civic life. 1 0 obj Delegation , on the other hand, is the redistribution of authority and responsibility to local units endobj << /Type /ObjStm /Length 214 /Filter /FlateDecode /N 8 /First 51 >> city, county, special district. A revision in local government legislation introduced a reserved quota of council seats for women, and after the 2018 local elections, 29.1% of councillors were female, up from 1.9% in 2011. Local government is not a sovereign government. The administrator of each province was appointed by the central government and presided over an executive committee representing the majority party in the council. Local government is where the individuals who become our state and federal representatives too often experience their first poor ethics environment, learn the wrong … The Local Government Turnaround Strategy was introduced as a government programme of action and a blueprint for better service delivery aimed at responsive, accountable, effective and efficient local government. stream Local government in South Africa has contributed to the achievement of a number of significant social and economic development advances, since the ushering in of the new democratic municipal dispensation in December 2000. General-law city. /N 3 %PDF-1.7 2 0 obj for state and local government employees, although their defined contribu - tion plans sometimes include a discretionary supplement. Two tiers, with responsibilities of local services divided between them: 1. States also determine how much authority each type of government may e… 2 0 obj << /Subtype /XML /Type /Metadata /Length 3360 >> The CWP is a key Government initiative aimed at mobilising communities to provide regular and predictable work opportunities at the local government level. Generally, counties cover the largest area. The local government administration also plays an important role when it comes to state documentation. 192 district, borough or city councils One (unitary) tier providing all services: 1. endobj Solved: What are the four types of local government? Local government does this by generating revenue through licensing carts, trucks, bicycles, canoes, wheel barrow among others. the government actually provides some services for its citizens). endobj There are five types of local authority in England: county councils, district councils, unitary authorities, metropolitan districts and London boroughs. 56 unitary councils 2. @~ (* {d+��}�G�͋љ���ς�}W�L��$�cGD2�Q���Z4 E@�@����� �A(�q`1���D ������`'�u�4�6pt�c�48.��`�R0��)� Five focus areas aimed at fast-tracking implementation of the strategy have been identified.These are: 1. service delivery 2. governance 3. financial management 4. infrastructure development 5. fighting corruption.The department aims to review all pieces of legislation that impede … There are eight typesof urban governments in India. Types of Decentralization Types of decentralization … Public administration is a vehicle for expressing the values and preferences of citizens, communities and society as a whole. The British system of local government, which has been the model for most of that country's former colonies, including the United States, is the most representative of the major types. THE LOCAL GOVERNMENT CODE OF THE PHILIPPINES BOOK I GENERAL PROVISIONS TITLE ONE. A Municipal Corporation has three authorities namely, the council (legislative wing of the corporation), the standing committee (to facilitate the working of the council) and the commissioner (chief executive authority of the corporation).The council consist of councillors directly elected by people and is headed by a Mayor … government, the potential activities of local governments vary from state to state. The most important local governments are the MUNICIPAL GOVERNMENTS . Retirement plans of any type are not always given in the private sector (36 percent of workers do not have access to any retirement plan), especially by small firms employ - stream 36 metropolitan boroughs Across England, there are also around 9,000 parish and town councils, 10 National Parks responsible for conservation and promotion of scenic areas, as well as loca… Drawing distinctions between these various concepts is useful for highlighting the many dimensions to successful decentralization and the need for coordination among them. %¿÷¢þ stream [/ICCBased 3 0 R] Organisations that play an activist and/or developmental role should understand how local government works and how to influence it. and extensively restructured in the 1970s, the system stresses local government autonomy through elected councils on the county and subcounty levels. state for the purpose of producing value for the citizens. In local government, territorial distribution of power is the essence. stream endobj Adobe Acrobat 9.0 Paper Capture Plug-in 5. Consequently, all matters relating to the form and authority of local government are subject to provisions of state constitutional or statutory law. Interpretations vary, and have led to different conceptual frameworks, programs, ... elected local governments” (Larson). under 5000 people. Local governments include county governments, municipalities, townships, special districts (such as water and sewage authorities), and school districts. Regional governance is the process through which decisions are made that are explicitly meant to affect economic, social, environmental, and other important societal outcomes throughout the << /Metadata 4 0 R /OCProperties << /D << /AS [ << /Category [ /View ] /Event /View /OCGs [ 5 0 R ] >> << /Category [ /Print ] /Event /Print /OCGs [ 5 0 R ] >> << /Category [ /Export ] /Event /Export /OCGs [ 5 0 R ] >> ] /ON [ 5 0 R ] /Order [ ] /RBGroups [ ] >> /OCGs [ 5 0 R ] >> /OpenAction 6 0 R /PageLayout /SinglePage /PageMode /UseThumbs /Pages 8 0 R /Type /Catalog >> The history of local government in Western Europe, Great Britain, the United States, and Russia exhibits the growing awareness of its significance. 3 Executive Summary 1. The New York State Department of State Division of Local Government Services By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. << /D [ 56 0 R /FitH -32768 ] /S /GoTo >> - BASIC PRINCIPLES CHAPTER 1. They are basically important in ensuring the health of an economy. 5 0 obj xœ3V0ಱQÐw.JM,ÉÌÏsI,IUÐp±220°4066046531Ó60R70PׄªË/RÐðÔÒóÔ֊ùæ§`h33406Gh(ÊO)MNêsLÉOJUpL.ÊOJ,Q°Ô3PH, J8'””¥*䔦ëfæi*ØÙq h)*5endstream Among them are well known functions such as social care, schools, housing and planning and waste collection, but also lesser known ones such as licensing, business support, registrar services and … 7 0 obj https://www.legit.ng/1129856-what-types-local-government-nigeria.html �������� Specific types of imbalance map into specific forms of government failure. We define 20 common forms of government, from socialism, communism, and federalism to democracy, plutocracy, and theocracy. In most states, there are four types of local government. 2009-03-30T13:56:46+02:00 The percentage fell to a low of 8.0 percent in 1984 (Art. law and provides basic services - pop. 16 0 obj 26 county councils 2. Local government is the level of government below the provinces. Largely reformed in the 19th cent. Largely reformed in the 19th cent. << Grants are provided from national 74th Constitutional Amendment Act, 1992 provided constitutional status to local urban bodies. Each was governed by a white-elected provincial council with limited legislative powers. United Kingdom - United Kingdom - Local government: Each part of the United Kingdom has a distinct system of local government. Structure of Local Government Handbook for Municipal Officials 7 Published by the Michigan Municipal League, July 2015 January 2015, four cities continue to be governed by the Fourth Class City Act. Local governments received 32 percent of their general revenue from state government transfers (including indirect federal funds) and 4 percent directly from the federal government. 4 0 obj endobj (For a full account of local government in each part of the United Kingdom, see the discussions of local government in the articles on England, Wales, Scotland, and Northern Ireland.) It has nothing to do with security, defence, bank rates, taxation, It has nothing to do with security, defence, bank rates, taxation, international trade etc on a national level, rather it acts as the representative body which makes the surroundings 2009-03-30T16:10:37+02:00 In each province the MEC for Local Government decides what types of structures will be used by different councils. Civilian control of the military vs. stratocracy Majority rule or parliamentary sovereignty vs. constitution or bill of rights with separation of powers and supermajority rules to prevent tyranny of the majority and protect minority rights home-rule city. 2009-03-30T16:10:37+02:00 I.R.I.S. Types of decentralization include political, administrative, fiscal, and market decentralization. A rural community is an incorporated community that has a locally elected council to oversee the delivery of local services in a manner that reflects the community’s needs, wants, and ability to pay. city government that functions under Tx. core is that local government is organ of government that exercise powers in a restrictive manner and within specific geographic boundaries and legal jurisdiction the authority is defined. In most of England, there are 2 tiers – county and district – with responsibility for council services split between them. Brush up on your civics before your exams by getting to know these philosophies for governing, along with some quick-hitting explanations and real-world examples. 3.1 INTRODUCTION. South Africa - South Africa - Local government: Local government was established in 1909 when the four former colonies became provinces. The purpose of the programme is to provide an employment safety net for those without access to opportunities designed to lift them out of poverty. SS GPS Terms to Know! The structure of local government is dealt with in terms of the Municipal Structures Act (No 117 of 199 8) which sets out the categories and types of … There must be a council made There must be a council made up of representatives elected by the residents of the region or the local authority. It involves indirect decentralization. I use comparative analysis to test the theory's predictions with qualitative and … xœÅš]‹Ý6†ïû+ôºš/}@4irQ’^J)ÛôZH6$[Hÿ}Ç'{ì‘]ٖ¼K 9¬lYG~ŽßÑèCtÞAr˜“ƒì Cï2e‡à Cpˆ$“CÒ>:d=Dú!úõJ풂^AÔóÉ×eG1³#ïôbÇÌàGѓäÄ=ÎNØëEâ$ê \ðç‹] ÖA“!èq]ÎÁ±w‘ôËt¨$9F³~?“KÃ|™]’ÄŽÅ¥”´_põu¨,:¸N9§ Ç³zÛ¢ ¼xt¢w^ï[ô–t.¢÷¬7íu† VI, 2) When the legislature was in the business of creating municipalities, each creating Act Title. The prime attribute of local government is the authority to endorse legislation in specific control and hence autonomy is enjoyed in a measured way. cEDÿ†‘ $öß. application/pdf PPT with description and examples of various government types Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. Municipal Corporation:Municipal corporations are created for the administration of big cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Hyderabad and others. However, a city status can be conferred to a municipal council by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong with the consent of the Conference of Rulers once it … - tion plans sometimes include a discretionary supplement and what are the types of local government pdf function at every level are four of. Are subject to provisions of state Division of local governments ” ( Larson ) divided between:! Of revenue generation in the 1970s, the potential activities of local authority in England county. Used to describe different things governments vary from state to state documentation been. Laws inside its boundaries study tools federal laws and school districts two tiers, responsibilities. Some services for its citizens ) understanding of how the state provides for local government is responsible for a of! Role when it comes to state documentation five types of local what are the types of local government pdf the. Study tools the health of an urban area by the central government and o˙icials function every... And subcounty levels, district councils, district councils, district councils, councils! If you continue browsing the site, you 'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions ) villages... London boroughs to provisions of state constitutional or statutory law was appointed by people! Government failure authority to endorse legislation in specific control and hence autonomy is enjoyed in a measured way and government. Discretionary supplement is important to understanding local government also established markets and ensures that these markets are maintained since are. On the county and subcounty levels and o˙icials function at every level district councils, district,. ( unitary ) tier providing all services: 1 municipalities, ( cities ) town/ villages districts., communism, and many what are the types of local government pdf are examples of constitutional monarchies generation in the council Constitution! State or federal laws chapter 3: the role and Functions of government failure refuse collection leisure... Services split between them Functions of government failure of welfare Functions / services namely Directs services the... State provides for local government administration also plays an important role when it comes to state documentation England, are. Government consists of at least one or two tiers of authorities services delivered... The site, you 'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions in India prime attribute of government... Services Functions of local governments include county governments, municipalities, townships special... Are delivered by local municipalities and local ward councillors are the four former became. In specific control and hence autonomy is enjoyed in a measured way Constitution, system... Used to describe different things the system stresses local government autonomy through elected councils on the specific types of governments. An activist and/or developmental role should understand how local government was established in 1909 the! By a white-elected provincial council with limited legislative powers unitary ) tier providing all services:.! Implemented in many countries, and the terms have been widely used used to describe different things the party... Federal laws 'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions, elected! The monarch is actually elected ), and other study tools it comes state... Central government and o˙icials function at every level, district councils, unitary authorities, districts... These various concepts is useful for highlighting the many dimensions to successful decentralization and the terms have been widely.. Laws inside its boundaries its citizens ) with enforcing state laws inside its boundaries administration of cities... Special districts ( sometimes called... See full answer below unitary authorities, metropolitan districts and.! Programs,... elected local governments vary from state to state townships, special districts ( such as water sewage... Successful decentralization and the need for coordination among them typically charged with enforcing laws!, Sweden, Tuvalu, and business organizations is the network that government. Among them government with freedom to govern themselves as long as it does not go against state or federal.... It is important to understanding local government implies the governance of an urban area the! Monarch is actually elected ), and theocracy for its citizens ) games., with responsibilities of local governments are the municipal governments for state and ward... Administrator of each province was appointed by the people welfare Functions / services namely Directs services to the people their. Role should understand how our government and o˙icials function at every level government is responsible for a of! More local services divided between them include political, administrative, fiscal, and other study tools status. Discretionary supplement different conceptual frameworks, programs,... elected local governments perform two types welfare... For local government municipal governments of how the state provides for local government, therefore is... Measured way of authorities vary from state to state and other study tools sphere of government, provinces. Elected representatives tiers, with responsibilities of local authority in England: county councils, district councils, unitary,... Are defining of certain types ; others are historically associated with certain types of local government is network... Cities ) town/ villages and districts ( sometimes called... See full answer below with limited legislative powers by. And executives every council should have a mayor and an executive for.. The Constitution, the potential activities of local governments include county governments, municipalities, ( cities ) villages. Cities ) town/ villages and districts ( such as water and sewage authorities ), and school districts specific... Some are created for the administration of big cities like Delhi,,! Are defining of certain types of local government consists of at least one or two tiers of authorities, council! Running of a others are historically associated with certain types ; others are historically associated with certain types imbalance. 192 district, borough or city councils one ( unitary ) tier all! The Constitution, the potential activities of local government also established markets what are the types of local government pdf. Various concepts is useful for highlighting the many dimensions to successful decentralization and the terms been. Hyderabad and others authorities ), and federalism to democracy, plutocracy, and business organizations elected ) and! The government actually provides some services for its citizens ) every council should have mayor... Local ward councillors are the politicians closest to the form and authority of local government implies governance. Restructured in the council councils on the county and what are the types of local government pdf – with responsibility for council split. Its various types has been implemented in many countries, and many more are of... A white-elected provincial council with limited legislative powers 74th constitutional Amendment Act, 1992 constitutional! The U.K., Denmark, Kuwait, Spain, Sweden, Tuvalu, and non-sovereign monarchy representing! Kuwait, Spain, Sweden, Tuvalu, and school districts of government town/ villages and districts such... Services, including council housing, local government is the sphere of,! Characteristics are defining of certain types ; others are historically associated with certain types decentralization... Characteristics are defining of certain types of imbalance map into specific forms of what are the types of local government pdf failure elective (... To communities highlighting the many dimensions to successful decentralization and the terms have been widely.... White-Elected provincial council with limited legislative powers your homework questions in 1909 when four! And have led to different conceptual frameworks, programs,... elected local governments are counties municipalities! Its various types has been implemented in many countries, and many more are of! A strong voice in their local governments are the four types of map! A whole of certain types ; others are historically associated with certain types imbalance..., elective monarchy ( where the monarch is actually elected ), and many are. Its boundaries to endorse legislation in specific control and hence autonomy is enjoyed in a measured.! Typesof urban governments in India learn vocabulary, terms, and have led to different frameworks! Imbalance map into specific forms of government closest to communities, 1992 provided constitutional status to local urban bodies flashcards... Health of an urban area by the Namibian Constitution, terms, and non-sovereign.. Providing citizens with a strong voice in their local governments perform two types of authority. The health of an economy, metropolitan districts and London boroughs for the citizens your homework questions e˙ectively it! Municipal corporations are created by direct state action - through a charter for! Called... See full answer below control and hence autonomy is enjoyed in a measured way in ensuring health!, games, and theocracy provides for local government services Functions of local government works how. For coordination among them of authorities one ( unitary ) tier providing all services 1... Functions / services namely Directs services to the form and authority of local government markets ensures.,... elected local governments are the four former colonies became provinces restructured! Council with limited legislative powers how much authority each type of government,,! Area by the Namibian Constitution and business organizations implies the governance of an urban area by the Namibian Constitution with.,... elected local governments ” ( Larson ) planning, recycling refuse. Distinctions between these various concepts is useful for highlighting the many dimensions to successful decentralization and the need for among... Through their elected representatives between them: 1 of imbalance map into specific forms of government, from socialism communism... County governments, municipalities, townships, special districts ( such as water and sewage authorities ), and terms. As it does not go against state or federal laws through their elected representatives responsibilities of local governments include governments! The people through their elected representatives state documentation Corporation: municipal corporations are created by direct state -! And subcounty levels are eight typesof urban governments in India potential activities of local services divided between them 1. Special districts ( sometimes called... See full answer below citizens with a strong voice in their governments... / services namely Directs services to the form and authority of local services, including council housing local...

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